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Lecture 8

PSY210H1F Lecture 8

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University of Toronto St. George
Justin Mc Neil

PSY210H1F L8; Nov 6, 2012 Adoption of Social Norms Freud: internalization of parental values & societal norms Essays Left to its only devices, the ego is amoral, wants to help the id APA format Freud ppl are inherently evil, but social pressures cause a Double spaced conscience to form Hand in at beginning of class Genital stage (ages 5-6): Oedipus/Elektra complex Due Nov 20 o Child wants to sexually possess opposite sex parent 8-10 pgs, not including title pg & works cited pg o But same-sex parent (rival) = too powerful At least 4 sources o Hatred towards same-sex parent, feel anxiety & fear of punishment; feel guilt MORAL DEVELOPMENT Morality is not the doctrine of how we may make ourselves Psychoanalytic Theory happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy of happiness. Ego channels these energies into the superego, uses psychic energy from the id to lend its force Immanuel Kant Becomes like the same-sex parent Internalize parental Where Does Morality Come From? values protection from same-sex parent & vicarious Emotions? Affective component possession of opposite-sex parent o Empathy vs. sympathy? Morality = adoption of social of same-sex Biology? Super-ego develops thru anxiety, guilt; Oedipus/Elektra complex Society? o Internalization of social values, grp norms & laws Boys: castration anxiety (due to seeing a naked girl, thinking Reason? something terrible happened to her) o Cognitive o Powerful anxiety causes strong motivation to internalize parental values strong super-ego o How do we evaluate laws, standards Girls: penis envy thinks her equipment is less impressive Emotion: Does Empathy Predict Behavior? o Weak anxiety results in less motivation to internalize values: weaker super-ego Hoffman: emotion = primary force in moral development, drives us to be moral o Mother cant castrate her, so less scary o Ex. Anger as a result of injustic Gender difs: boys > girls Empathetic distress o Personal distress: motivation to alleviate ones own Jennings & Niemi (1969) discomfort How much do parents & children agree? Should schools be de-segregated? (r = .34) Does not lead to moral bhvr We feel someone elses pain & want to alleviate Should prayer be allowed in schools? (r = .29) ourselves put distance btwn ourselves Should a legally elected Communist be allowed to take office? (r = .13) Or may turn to sympathy Sympathy: motivation to alleviate anothers discomfort Should people be allowed to speak out against Churches & o Tends to motivate moral bhvr religions? (r = .05) A purely emotional explanation for morality accounts for most variants since empathy is most important Punishment and Morality Freud assumed punishment drives our morality Morality & Emotion o So assume a strongly punished child has a stronger Republican senator in cases where women are raped, they super-ego will only get pregnant if they were consenting to the act o Actually see the opposite because the body has ways to shut it down WRONG Do we do right because were afraid to do wrong? o Denounced by his party, ppl angry Punishment: poor outcomes James Bond movie dif opinions anger o deficits in moral punishment, teaches that harsh o My friend is wrong, but not morally physical punishment is okay o But still same anger as above o No msg aside from dont get caught doing something bad Not all situations we have emotional reponse to are moral Induction: moral outcomes situations o Telling children why what they did was wrong Hoffman: children higher in empathy & sympathy tend to help Reason used as a disciplinary rule change bhvr others more o Models more adaptive problem-solving to a child Emotion predicts 30% of the variation in helping bhvrs o Teaches children how to behave o Encourages empathy Eisenberg (1987): meta-analysis examining association btwn o Helps moral schema develop sympathy, empathy, and altruistic behavior o Understand rationale behind rules o Associations tended to be positive.... o But did not predict all variance in moral bhvr Behaviourism o Conclusion: empathy is an important part of Skinner: Morality a system of reinforcement/punishment No right or wrong; reinforced or punished understanding morality, but does not account for all moral motivation Moral systems arbitrary Children reinforced for following rules Rules as discriminative, secondary stimulus Social Cognition o Gains power because at one pt was paired w a primary Discontinuity: children & adults fundamentally dif thought enforcer at 1 pt was rewarded for following a rules processes Direct transmission of values therefore impossible Skinner: Beyond Freedom & Dignity o So they cant understand rright & wrong in the same A person drives a car because of the contingencies of way that we do reinforcement which have shaped & which maintain his How do children interpret moral msgs? bhvr We do not say that a person does what he ought to do in driving a car because of any inner sense of what is right. Piaget: Cognitive Development We are likely to appeal to some such inner virtue, however, to 2 stages explain why a person behaves well w respect to his fellow o Relied on increase in social perspective-taking, reduction men, but he does so not because his fellow men have endowed in egocentrism, increase in cognition him w a sense of responsibility or obligation or with loyalty or o But somewhat over-simplified respect for others but because they have arranged effective Heteronomous morality social contingencies. The bhvrs classified as good or bad & o Unquestioning adherence to rules right or wrong are not due to goodness or badness, or a good o Rules as fixed, immutable or bad character, or a knowledge of right & wrong; they are o Pre-operational stage, concrete stage, egocentrism due to contingencies involving a great variety of reinforcers, Rmbr little kids thinking accidentally breaking 15 including the generalized verbal reinforcers of Good!, Bad!, cups was naughtier than break 1 on purpose Right!, & Wrong! Morality of co-operation Human beings not free o Rules alterable by consensus No inherent human dignity, not relevant Understand others have dif perspectives as Dont act because of some inherent moral worth egocentrism decreases Act moral because it gives us pleasure rewarded o Understanding of intention & conseqs Behvaiourism: Issues? Piaget: A Game of Marbles Reinforcement/punishment occurs over time Studied how children played game of marbles How often have you: Morality: All morality consists in a system of rules, & the o Stolen
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