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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Aggression and Conflict and Writing Tutorial 2 - October 7.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

October 7, 2013. Lecture 5 - Aggression & Conflict: Why do we fight? WT2: Providing Evidence How to improve reading  Undertand discipline-specific reading conventions  Improve reading efficiency o Know where to find relevant/critical info quickly – layout o Knowing when to skim vs. read deeply o Practice  Active reading o Mark it your own – highlight, symbols, notes in your own words o Integrating ideas: connections between ideas and articles  Strategies for reading an Academic Article o Quickly read through in this order:  1. Abstract: contains a summary of empirical context, hypothesis, methods, results and interpretation  Ask yourself: how does this fit with your thesis, does it support one of your premises?  2. Introduction: mini-literature review, gives empirical background context and hypothesis  Ask yourself: How does this connect with other research? What assumptions are they making?  3. Discussion: interpret results, possible applications and limitations, future directions  Ask yourself: how do their conclusions fir with your thesis? Are there alternative interpretations?  Reading Popular Science Articles o Read from start to finish o Logical flow to the story – linking premise  argumentation o For each link in the chain there is empirical support o When you’re reading try to identify and understand  Key terms  Thesis  Each step in the argument  Does the conclusion follow? Example Thesis  A thesis defines the scope/aim of your paper  Be specific (how specific depends on length of the paper) o Ask yourself, can I provide a thorough explanation of the phenomenon in 4-6 pages?  Which thesis has a scope that’s “just right”? o Thesis 1: Marital conflict affects children negatively  Too broad, not enough space for everything o Thesis 2: Marital conflict leads to increased cortisol levels in female Chinese students  Too specific, hard time finding research and filling 6 pages o Thesis 3: Marital conflict impacts children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviour, altering their social-emotional development  Just right, not too vague and not too specific  Guide to finding your thesis o To Start: find a general topic you are intrinsically interested in o Within that area look for a phenomenon that social psych can explain  Something that is counter intuitive?  Something that we all experience, but don’t understand o Look for debates in the literature, choose a side and argue for it! o Scope check: Ask yourself, “can I justify my thesis with a few articles (4-6 pages)?”  Strategy: write a few example theses, play with the words, see what they look like written donw  Supporting with Evidence: What counts as evidence in psychology? o Opinions, anecdotes, or intuition may stimulate a thesis, but don’t count as evidence and you need empirical data and examples to support arguments Writing an Outline  Introduction o Hook: Anecdote, report on a relevant current event, or intriguing question o Definition/explain: bullying, childhood depression o Thesis: Childhood depression and bullying are closely linked, thus proper assessment and treatment of depression is an important step towards reducing bullying at school.  Argument o 1. Bullying and Depression: aim to prove the link between the two  Bullies and victims both show signs of depression (blah blah blah 1998)  Bullies and victims have more suicidal ideation than non-bullying children (blah blah 2002) o 2. Hurdles to overcoming this issue  Bullied children tend to not tell parents and teachers  don’t seek help (blah blah blah 2003(  Summary and Conclusion: therefore, depression is critically linked to bullying in school-aged children and proper assessment and treatment of depression is critical to overcoming bullying Resources  Find them on Blackboard in the Popular Science Writing sidebar tab  1. Detailed example outline  …. Draft Feedback  What to expect – lots of comments/suggestions  What to do – digest, ask question, and revise, revise, revise  Remember: good papers will have suggestions for improvement; aim is to grow – no matter where your starting point is Today’s Lecture: Intergroup Conflict and Interpersonal Aggression  Intergroup conflict o Intergroup relations: the way in which people in groups perceive, think about, feel about, and act toward people in groups  E.g., the “blue eyed” and “brown eyed” kids o Conflict: A perceived incompatibility of goals between two parties o Groups are often more aggressive and more competitive than individuals  E.g., hot sauce study (Meier and Hinsz, 2004)  Individual  gives out 58 grams on average  Groups  gives out 93 grams on average  Why does aggression arise in groups? o Groups fight over two main things:  Material resources (land, money, water, food, etc.)  Social rewards (power, respect, esteem, popularity, etc.) o Two theories about how conflict arises over material resources:  Realistic conflict theory  Argues that intergroup hostility, conflict, and aggression arise from competition among groups for material resources and/or social rewards (e.g., jobs, land, power)  Robber’s Cave experiment (Sherif, 1966) o Formation of ingroups  11-year-old boys from good backgrounds, Christian, went to good schools, above average IQ scores, Caucasian  Parents sent them to a summer camp knowing it was a psychological experiment and councillors were all scientists etc.  22 different boys from 22 different schools, 11 in each group, all strangers to each other  Each group gets to know each other, within their own group, different cabins, etc.  They think they are the only group at the camp, whereas the other group are in a cabin across the lake o Conflict/competition between groups  The existence of the other group is revealed to the boys  The two groups get together and do some normal camp activities (tug of war, capture the flag, eating together as a whole, etc.)  Rattlers vs. Eagles  Engaging in competitive activities the factor of competition creates outgroup hostility on top of automatic ingroup favouritism o Cooperation/integration of the groups  Now that there is hostility between the two groups, how do we fix it?  Arrange for a series of problems or issues to occur where all the boys of each group have to cooperate and work together to achieve a solution  E.g., find a stalled truck where they have to help the person all together to get their truck working, or they are allowed to go to a movie as long as ALL the boys pool their money together  Boys are introduced to a water shortage problem that might have been caused by vandals (outside enemy); they are united against a common enemy and work together to find the issue and solve the problem  Start showing better behaviour afterwards, like letting the group that didn’t bring canteens drink first  Return back to hostile actions (big food fight in the cafeteria next day) quickly; took a week’s worth of cooperative activities to minimize outgroup hostility  Despite some leftover hostility, it is still permanently minimized by the end of the week of cooperative activities  Relative deprivation theory  Argues that intergroup hostility, conflict and aggression arise from social comparisons with other groups, not from objective reality (actual limitations of resources)  Egoistic relative deprivation: the sense that you are doing less well than other individuals  Fraternal relative deprivation: the sense that your group is doing less well than other groups o Feelings of fraternal deprivation can lead to intergroup conflict o E.g., women’s suffrage movement o How does fraternal relative deprivation occur?  Not possessing X (and someone else does)  Right to vote, men have it  Wanting X  Want the right to vote  Feeling entitled X  Feel like women should have the right to vote  Attaining X is possible  It isn’t outrageous for the idea of women voting to be real  Not your fault you don’t have X  Society’s fault women don’t have the right to vote o Groups and competition  Social competition often outweighs competition for material resources  In other words, being the “winner” is often more important to groups that objective outcomes  in some cases, groups will even choose to reduce their material rewards if it will maximize their advantage over the other group  Hypothetical example: o A: Your group gets $20, their group gets $20 o B: Your group gets 10$, their group gets 5$ o Despite getting half as much money, people will choose option B because then they’re doing better o Escalation of Group Conflict  E.g., Changes in perception  The ingroup can do no wrong  The outgroup can do no right  The ingroup is all powerful o Preoccupied with appearing powerful, tough, etc.  Mirror image perception  when each group sees its own behaviour as caused by the actions of the other side  Current United States Government conflict; each political side is blaming the other side for the immature behaviour that caused this shutdown o Resolving Intergroup Conflict  Intergroup contact can reduce prejudice and conflict, but sometimes contact alone is not sufficient  Importance of equal status contact
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