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University of Toronto St. George

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION What happens when you are paid to do a task that you enjoy doing? Will you enjoy it more? Less? Will you perform better? Worse? Overjustification-intrisic motivation diminish “I think I’m really fortunate because I really love what I do. They’re players who do it because they’re good at it or use it as a means just to provide or accolades or adoration. That’s a different kind of motivation. When you do something that you truly, truly love doing, you find yourself wanting to do it all the time.”-intrinis motivation The overjustification effect: The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors. Intrinsic motivation: motivation that originates from within the person (doing something “for its own sake,” not for the sake of reward, e.g., studying for the love learning) Extrinisic motivation: motivation that originates from outside the person (the situation) (the activity is a means to an end, e.g., studying only because of the exam) WHY? An attributional / self-perception phenomenon Can be attribute to both intrinsic and extrinsic, discounting--- Lepper et al. (1973) 1. gave children opportunity to play with colorful felt-tipped markers…something these children loved to do. By observing how much time the children spent on the activity, they were able to measure the degree of intrinsic motivation. 2. Two weeks later, children divided (randomly) into 3 groups, all about equal in terms of initial levels of intrinsic motivation. In one group, children asked simply to draw dome pictures with the markers. In a second, told that if they used the markers they would receive a “Good Player Award,” a certificate with a gold star and a red ribbon (very cool). In third group, not offered reward for drawing pictures, but given reward afterward (surprise!). 3. One week later, teachers placed the markers and paper on a table in the classroom and experimenters observed through a one-way mirror. DV: Amount of time each child spent playing with the markers (reflecting his or her level of intrinsic motivation). Results: The paradox: Reward can undermine rather than enhance intrinsic motivation. Should corporations stop offering incentives to employees? Yes, if framed as a “bribe,” no if framed as a “bonus.” Intrinsic motivation increases when you feel autonomous, rather than controlled. -Artists -Office workers REACTIONS TO SETBACKS AND SUCCESSES Dweck & colleagues: two key patterns that people display after failure: 1) helpless pattern 2) mastery-oriented pattern Helpless pattern: 1)a view that once failure occurs, the situation is out of their control, 2)a general denigration of their own intelligence or ability, 3)plunging expectations, 4)negative emotions, 5)lower persistence / deteriorating performance. Mastery-oriented pattern: hardy responses to failure because students remain focused on achieving mastery in spite of their present difficulties. Typical study: 1)children solved 8 easy logic problems. 2)children next went on to 4 very difficult problems 3) children given 8 new easy problems-as easy as the first 8 How did they respond? Questionnaire used to assess mastery-orientation vs. help- orientation. DV’s: performance, strategies used (good vs. bad), plus thoughts and feelings they spontaneously uttered (asked to talk aloud as they worked on problems). Results: Mastery-oriented better on all DV’s. Most striking: helpless children no longer could solve the problems of the same easiness that they solved with no problem prior to the setback! In other words, the setback seemed to activate a debilitating mind set that not only led to self-recrimination but actually impeded their performance. Helpless pattern: failureglobal attributions (indictment of self as incompetent, beyond the circumscribed task at hand) In other words…made FAE on themselves! Is praising children a good thing to do? Mueller & Dweck (1998): 1)gave 5 graders an easy set of problems 2)all students told they got a very good score. 3)Students in control group: feedback stopped there. Students in intelligence-praise group: Experimenter continued saying, “You must be very smart.” Students in effort-praise group, “You must have worked really hard.” 4) 2 set of problems – much harder, much poorer performance. rd 5) 3 set – same level of easiness as first set. rd Results (on 3 problem set): “you must be smart” “you must have worked hard” controls Thus, these simple differences in feedback led to profound differences in the way the children saw themselves and led to major differences in their performance!! AGGRESSION Instrumental aggression – harm inflicted as a means to a desired end (e.g., personal gain, attention, or even self-defense). Assumption: If aggressor believes there is an easier way to obtain goal, aggression would not occur. Emotional aggression – harm inflicted for its own sake. Often “hot” and impulsive… but not necessarily as in “revenge is a dish best served cold” (a la the Count of Monte Cristo). BIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS To what extent is our level of aggression due to genetic factors? Twin studies (monozygotic compared to dizygotic). Prediction: identical twins should be more similar to each other in level of aggression than fraternal twins. Adoption studies. Prediction adopted children’s level of aggressiveness should resemble biological parents more than adoptive parents. Results: Greater than zero genetic contribution, but not very impressive (Miles & Carey, 1997). The general finding: strong relationship between testosterone level and physical violence. But what’s the interpretation? low levels of serotonin are associated with higher levels of aggression, and drugs that boost serotonin decrease aggression. An individual’s level of serotonin appears to have some a priori genetic component but it also fluctuates a lot from situation to situation. LEARNED ELEMENTS Aggressive behavior can be strongly reinforced via positive reinforcement (aggression produces rewards) or negative reinforcement (aggression prevents undesired outcome). Hall’s (1998) research suggests that punishment is more likely to work at decreasing aggression if it is: 1.immediate 2.strong 3.consistent. Berkowitz (1998) argued that the certainty of punishment is more important than its severity. Bandura’s Bobo Doll study: social models have great power to teach aggression, even without any real rewards or punishments to the child! i.e. purely through observation Fortunately, studies have shown that nonaggression can also be successfully modeled through observational learning (Gibbons & Ebbeck, 1997). FRUSTRATION Dollard (1939): The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: 1.Frustration produced by interrupting a person’s progress toward an expected goal will always elicit the motive to aggress. 2.All aggression is caused by frustrations A key component: Displacement (the inclination to aggress is deflected to a more socially acceptable substitute) e.g., You come home from a bad day at work and yell at your spouse, kids, dog. Research has isolated the following reasons for why “catharsis” doesn’t actually happen: 1.Imagined or observed aggression is actually more likely to increase physiological symptoms. 2. Actual aggressive behavior can lower arousal levels, but if the aggressive intent remains, “cold-blooded” aggression (i.e., without the arousal component) can still occur, and does occur quite often. “Hot” aggression is not the only kind of aggression, and it might not even be the most frequent kind! 3. If the reduction in arousal after aggressive behavior f
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