What do we mean by intelligence? Piaget said it was a type of logic the child uses when they’re thinking
about the world. This logic changes with age. Intelligence is a quantity that reflects an ability that we have. Wechsler asked about the characteristics of intelligent people. He found a different abilities such
as common sense, humour and openness were also mentioned (other than the obvious).
He produced foremark of modern intelligence. He developed concept of mental age. The items on his
test were age graded. From this mental age came into account there is a limitation. This tells you the
mental age of individual but it doesnt identify dull or advance children. Mental age is absolute but if
you’re older it is a problem. Intelligent quotient = mental age/ chronological age * 100. Terman traqnslated and revised Binet’s test with American school children => stanford binet test this
is the standard Iq test. Terman used white middle class children to normalize the test and this suggest nature issues with the test. Terman’s test (which involved verbal ability) required a certain age because
it would not give you reliable info.
Wechsler scale this test contains 4 broad methods. They are 1) verbal reasoning 2) working memory
3) perceptual org 4) processing speed.
He was trying to apply test that was more culturally independent.
Measures of infant intelligence consists of measures of perceptual motor performance. These are more
unreliable because infants are less capable than a 6 year old. The best known test of II, is BAYLEY SCALES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT these have three differnt contexts 1) cognitive – attention to
familiar/unfamiliar objects 2) language – involves their ability to understand and use different
expressions of language 3) motor – assesment of fine motor/gross mobility. Socio-emotional scale – asks
caregivers about different characteristics of the child (how well are their motor abilities, how long they
cry..etc.) Adaptive behaviour – asking parent aboutinfant’s adaptaation to daily life and how long they
get along with other children and other social roles. BSID – development quotient – this is because most
of the infants test that are used are not very well at predicting for infants (they are difficult subjects,
they get tired...etc). Helpful because it is a neurological diagnostic tool – disorders or other forms of
There is evidence that speed of habituation correlates with IQ. Infants who show faster habituation have
higher Iqs later in life. Novelty – infants who show stronger novelty preference have higher Iqs later in
life. Why? They measure infants ability to process info and to extract/internalize. Different theorists make different assumptions about the order/structure/ability/and nature of skills
taht gointo intelligence. These must be considered when thinking about intelligence. 1) psychometric –
the main concern has been in the development of standardized tests and produce reliable resonable
tests. Assumptions about this view 1) Terman – ability to carry out abstract thinking 2) Wechsler - The
capacity of an individual to act purposefully and think rationally, and to deal effectively with the
environment 3) BURT - Innate, general cognitive ability 4) Robinson - All of the knowledge a person has
acquired. All these make different definitions with different key components. Before 60’s – intelligence comes from genes. Contemporary theorists – environment palys critical role of
intelligence (range of reaction principal).
Is intelligence a single attribute or multiple? All these definitions imply that it is single. This can be tested
through factor analysis. Factor analysis is a correlation technique that is used to find groups of items
that are reated to one another and that are unrelated to other group of items. Ex: test has 10 questions
and after test he finds that certain items on test is highly correlated (if you get one right, you will get 3,
8, 9 also correct. If you get 2 right, you will get 4, 7 right).
If factorized and you see three different factors, then you can conclude that their are three diffretn
contexts that correlate with intelligence. Terman – correlation. He demonstrated that all of the individual items were mildly correlated. He did find inconsistency with performance. General mental
ability – influenced performance on all cognitive tasks. Special abilities – specific to individual tasks.
Guilford – 3D model that comprises over 100 distinct mental abilities. Content – what person thinks
about (5 different types). Operations – involves kinds of thinking we engage in. Products – type of answers that ar