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University of Toronto St. George
Maja Djikic

ERIK ERIKSON Intro •Traditional psychoanalysis •Ego- type of person/ sense self •Satisfying impulses of the id (Freud) or •Organizing life to ensure harmony with physical and social environment (Erikson) •Has its own needs, conflicts, and strengths •Source of self-awareness and identity- father of identity •It gains or loses strength as the function of developmental experiences. •Originally based on Freud Biography •Mother married at 21, but marriage did not last •Four years later, Erik was born- born out of wedlock •Mother refused to reveal who the father was •Mother re-married on Erik’s 3rd birthday (to Erik’s pediatrician, Theodor Homburger) •Theodor insisted on Erik being told he is his biological father •Couldn't find identity- father was nordic looking and erik didn't fit into stepfather's synagogue-- but at school was labelled as jew •Isolation amplified by physical dissimilarity •Felt like an outsider wherever he was •At 25 analyzed (and trained) by Anna Freud •He received no other formal education •Taught at Yale, Harvard, University of California •Erikson re-named himself at the age 37 Life Stages •8 stages, from birth to death •The sequence genetically determined, and unalterable •The stages build on each other •all 8 stages present, in rudimentary form, at birth •At each stage, 2 diff conflicts? •Ritualizations vs. ritualisms •Easy to understand ritualization in culture- Ex. How r u? (Are we ok?) •Ritualism- entirely empty of meaning •Each stage is characterized by a ‘crisis’ •All 8 stages present in immature stage •An important turning point •3 phases •immature phase •critical phase •resolution phase •Positive or negative resolution •Positive resolution strengthens the ego and leads to a greater adaptation •Negative resolution weakens the ego and inhibits adaptation •Crisis outcome in one stage affect outcomes in subsequent stages •Resolution not absolute •Stages before effect next stages •Negative resolution weaken ego; positive resolution strengthen ego •Psychosocial development 1. Trust v. •Birth to 1 year Mistrust •Freud’s ‘oral’ stage •Infants •Helpless & dependent •If consistently cared for - basic trust •If not - mistrust •Virtue: hope •Ritualization of the numinous vs. Idolism •Numinous distorted- Adore mother like idol 2.Autonomy vs. •1-3 years Shame & Doubt •Freud’s ‘anal’ stage •Invisible butt controlled by parents-- holding other objects -like to hold and drop things- hold+ not hold- not just feces like freud- motor skills •Toddlers •Understand they have a choice to do something or not •If parents are overly protective or unjust in their use of punishment - shame and doubt result •Predominance of autonomy: get will •Virtue: will •Judiciousness vs. Legalism 3. Initiative v. •3-5 years Guilt •Freud’s ‘phallic’ stage •Children •Increasingly able of initiation of ideas, action, fantasies, and plan future events •If parent’s ridicule the behaviors and plans, they will leave the stage lacking self-sufficiency, and experiencing guilt when thinking about these plans of behaviors •Shame about who you are; guilt about what you do •Virtue: purpose •Authenticity vs. Impersonation •Ritualization authentic; or can impersonate other roles 4. Industry v. •6-11 years Inferiority •Freud’s ‘latency’ stage •Children •Learning technological skills that will allow them to be productive members of the culture •If children don’t develop the discipline of industry,
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