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Maja Djikic

LECTURE9- HUMANISM (P. 349-373) Lecture Textbook Kant -Kant originally distinguished between: Background info noumena= what something is in itself, independent of our sensations of it phenomena= our sensory knowledge of things or actions in the external world- the thing we perceive is not what it is in itself -Though he believed that noumenal reality exists, Kant argued that we can never know such “Things in themselves” directly, and that, in fact, our mind through its categories of the understanding frames-in the meaning of the noumenal world for us - but if there was noumena, we wouldn't know what it is.. Edmund -Intersubjectivity Background info Husserl -The only way for a science of psychology to understand anything is through the person’s subjective point of view -Nothing can be considered real, unless there is an agreement reached phenomenally by a number of subjective people -Argued that we need a new language of description as well as a new method of scientific investigation if we are to capture the distinctively human, non-mechanistic course of action -Not introspection, because introspective psychologists assumed they were studying real or noumenal processes -Phenomenology focuses exclusively on the phenomenal aspects of experience, that include the essence of meaning (which lies in phenomenal, not noumenal, field of experience) ex. this is chair, what its used for -What can phenomenology teach us? seeks to clarify how we become conscious of related events in experience -Transcendental phenomenology: Kant was aware that human beings are able to reflexively study their own mind as a process – to describe this ability he employed the term transcendental -We are only species that can be the mind and study the mind at the same thing- very unique ability Otto Rank -Generally considered one of Freud’s most talented and important Background info coworkers -not a physician -According to Rank, each person continually creates his or her reality -His outlook was colored by the necessity for human beings to express their own will, to be independent persons -Became quite influential in the area of social work, where he promoted the functional school (as opposed to the diagnostic school) of social case work Otto Rank- -Social worker should take a dynamic approach to the client and Background info Social Work through relatively short-term therapy contact, effect a cure by helping Theory the client to exert his or her own will in assuming responsibility for life actions -Diagnosis or problem definition is thus secondary to an actual change in living -- focus on putting you into generalized category-- want the client to take control of their own life -Process should be for the client to exert own independent will-- fast as possible-- he thought it was good when people came in and said they were done with therapy Purpose of psychotherapy - The therapy relationship is for the client and NOT the therapist -“In each separate case it is necessary to create, as it were, a theory and technique made for the occasion without trying to carry over this individual solution to the next case.” - Try to create categories FOR the client-- unique - Technical jargon is to be shunned -It is the spontaneity and the uniqueness of the therapeutic relationship which is the precious aspect of therapy – and that which cures – rather than the fanciful, high-blown theories of the therapist ex. Studies comparing different psychological treatments for depression are all the same--- its the constructive relationship that counts What is the central problem facing a neurotic? -Learning how to express our personal will and thereby take command of our own life -A person who is dependent will enter into therapeutic relationship by submitting himself to the will of the therapist -Resistance of the client to the theoretical explanations of therapist are seen as sign of successful therapy by Rank (and unlike Freud) - trust self enough to know its not the case -One of the first psychoanalysts who advocated setting a termination date for therapy: A host of short-term therapies have evolved from this general approach -Rank saw therapy termination as rebirth -Dependent person saying that they can essentially take care of them self now Abraham -Born in New York, the eldest of 7 children -parents Russian immigrants- lower-middle Maslow -Isolated, taunted, friendless, lonely class neighborhood in NY - “With my childhood, it’s a wonder I’m not a psychotic.” -he was only jewish kid in his neighborhood- -Mother favored younger brothers and punished Maslow at the least spent much time reading provocation ex. When he brought stray cat home she threw it against -he was fond of father, but cared of hime wall.. -described mother as schizophrenic -Was afraid of the father, But… he had an uncle who spend a great deal -got married and studied in Wisconsin of time with him and contributed to his mental stability -started in behaviorism, then when returned to -Started in behaviorism, but became influenced by Fromm, Horney, NY met Fromm, Horney, adler etc. Adler, Benedict, Hull, etc. -birth of his child led him away from His personal experiences also led him away from behaviorism: had behaviorism and towards the study of baby and decided everything couldn’t be influenced by behaviorist pull personality What about -Criticized both psychoanalysis and radical behaviorism -Self=actualizing= persons who are fulfilling Healthy - Focused on positive side of human nature themselves and doing the best to be capable of personality - Precursor of ‘positive psychology’ doing ? -Focused on those rare persons who are on the verge of, or who have -his definition of a self-actualized person was already achieved, psychological health very subjective -He thought of this state of exemplary personal development as ‘self- Maslow’s Theory actualization’ -theory points away from science and towards - Also non-representative - but still serving as a corrective to a long philosophy history of focusing on psychopathology -strict empirical methods do not necessarily -“Health is not simply the absence of disease or even the opposite of it. encompass research into important human Any theory of motivation that is worthy of attention must deal with the questions highest capacities of the healthy and strong man as well as with the -interest in self-actualization continues in the defensive maneuvers of crippled spirits”(1970,p.33) form of the “Self-determination theory” by E. -Healthy personality - one that possesses sufficient personal fortitude Deci & R. Ran= people are active organisms with and creativity to be spontaneous and innocent. innate tendency to fulfill potential; social enviro -Innocence: Healthy personality’s capacity to live without pretense, to can support or hinder these tendencies be selflessly focused on a creative goal; All people who were fulfilled -work has also been done to explore the were able to stop thinking about self long enough to fulfill a creative hierarchy from a female perspective goal -some believe maslows theory of self- -Creative, innocent, and healthy people are able to free themselves from actualization is too simplified and optimistic distractions, fears, and petty influences imposed by other people, to -in west we believe personality I best rooted in become more completely themselves, authentic, and less influenced by a sense of high self-esteem, this does not aapply need to placate others. across all cultures -“This means dropping masks, dropping our efforts to influence, to -gender differences also apply: some believe impress, to please, to be lovable, to win applause. It could be said so: if female self-esteem is rooted in interpersonal we have no audience to play to, we cease to be actors. With no need to relationships and a mans on personal act we can devote ourselves, self-forgetfully, to the problem” (1971, accomplishments p.65). -does not include fact that society fails to fulfill -So, in becoming more our real selves and less the persons we expect needs of subjugated groups others want us to be, we approach closer to our potential. -cross-cultural studies suggest humans have a tendency to self-actualize -believed an improved culture and self- actualization should be the focus of psychology “In pursuit -Maslow reported personal sources of his interest in self-actualizing of angels” personality - his teachers “… started out as an effort of a young intellectual to try to understand two of his teachers whom he loved, adored, and admired and who were very, very wonderful people… Ruth Benedict [anthropologist] and -Max Wertheimer [one of the founders of gestalt psychology]…They were my teachers … and they were most remarkable human beings… I tried to see whether this pattern could be found elsewhere and I did find it elsewhere, in one person after another.” (1971, p.41-42) - He studied his teachers-- thought they were self-actualized-- teachers used to teach what they practiced-- lived in line with what they thought so they were very inspiring -These days we want objectivity in science With time, Maslow developed a definition of the self-actualizing person: …[self-actualization] may be loosely described as the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities, etc. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves and to be doing the best that they are capable of doing, reminding us of Nietzche’s exhortation, “Become what thou art!” (1970, p.150) -Sought out historical figures, and some contemporary ones to find extra-ordinary individuals who self-actualized…overall 37 figures, that included Goethe, Washington, Emerson, Aldous Huxley, Einstein, Lincoln, Jefferson, etc. -He also interviewed more than 3,000 individuals, of whom he considered only a “handful” to have the potential for self-actualization -Can only worry about self actualization if needs met Characterist Awareness: Efficient and accurate perception of reality-- don’t distort info; ics of Self- -Continued freshness of appreciation without preconceptions; actualizers: -Tendency to have peak experiences; Awareness -Clear ethical awareness and standards but not necessarily conventional ones-- you decide to do it even if it goes against your culture-- capacity for individual conscience Characterist Honesty: Philosophical sense of humor that pokes fun at our shared human pretensions ics of Self- -Deep feeling of kinship with all humanity-- all people are like you actualizers: -What you can do in circumstances that you're thrown in Honesty -Selective and deep interpersonal relations with small circle of intimates -Democratic character structure accepting of all people Characterist Freedom: Detachment and need for privacy ics of Self- -Autonomous and independent of culture and environment actualizers: -Creativeness characterizing whatever they do Freedom -Spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness Characterist Trust: ics of Self- -Problem- rather than self-centered actualizers: -Acceptance of self, others, and nature for what they are-- not what you think they are Trust -Resistance to cultural conformity Characterist Imperfections: Silly, wasteful, thoughtless habits; Ruthless & angry; -self-actualizers are NOT necessarily perfect! ics of Self- Absentminded, humorless, impolite; Overkindliness; Vanity; Boring or actualizers: irritating-- they love what they do so much Imperfecti -Once you find fulfillment might go to vanity on -Vanity prevents you from solving problem bc think your so special Peak -Self-actualized persons are “fulfilling themselves and doing the best -peak experience= intensification of an Experiences that they are capable of doing”; prone to ‘peak experiences’ experience to the extent that there is a loss of (intensification of experience to the point of self-transcendence-- forget transcendence you exist) -often termed religious or mystical -The monitoring self goes away-- only self ‘moments of self- -individual experiences an expansion of self and actualization: “… look, this is the real you and how you can be when sense of unity and meaningfulness in life functioning fully with your highest potential.” “… looks more integrated, -for that moment the world appears to be less split between experiencing the self and observing the self, more complete and the individual at unity with it one-pointed, more harmoniously organized, more efficiently -all individuals have potential for a peak organized…” (1968, p.104) experience -Personality and personal identity during peak experience -transcenders are likely to have peaks and -Consciousness (increased, clear, disoriented in time & space, healthy individuals are not mindfulness of self and the world)-- have vary detailed clarity-- time -self-actualizers can distinguish between the changes its quality- sense of time distorted goals they are striving towards and the means -Memory (intact, clear, accurate, continuity) by wwhich to achieve it -Identity (integrated, identity-enhancing experience) -it does NOT imply perfection, but a high level of -Perception of environment (holistic, rich, lucid, here-now, fresh) functioning -Time/space perception (loss of time perception but lucid memory for -not everyone has the means to self-actualize events)-- remember events very clearly -some people can be healthier than their -Person who has undergone peak experience feels: more integrated, environment whole, and unified; more at one with the world; as if he or she were at the peak of his or her powers, more fully herself; graceful, without strain, effortless; creative, active, responsible, and self-controlled; free of inhibitions, blocks, doubts, self-criticism; spontaneous, expressive, innocent; creative, self-confident, flexible; unique, individualistic; free of past and future limits; free of the world, free to be; undriven, unmotivated, nonwishing, beyond needs; rhapsodic, poetic; consumed, finished, closed complete, subjectively final; playful, good-humoured, childlike; lucky, fortunate, grateful. (don’t memorize these) -These experiences occur without conscious intention, planning, or will -People often confuse joy, fulfillment, happiness -Things become real in peak experience -Survival and non-survival conflicted -Something that may increase/ expand internally, but may decrease survival -Ex. Becoming war reporter-Parents care about survival than potential Focused on ‘potential’: Human beings are interested in more than fulfilling their desires – are interested in growth -Distinguished between: Motivations – D(deficiency) needs Metamotivations - B (being) needs Hierarchy -Needs: physiological Safety LoveSelf-esteemself actualizing -humans want to row- we are “wanting animals” of needs (need basic needs to get self-actualization) -as human desire is satisfied, another arises to - The representation may suggest that a person must have a full take its place gratification of a lower need before a higher need emerges and affects -motivation= reduction of tension by satisfying behavior. But… “A more realistic description of the hierarchy would be deficit states or lacks in terms of decreasing percentages of satisfaction as we go up the -d-needs= deficiency needs- arise out of need hierarchy of prepotency. For instance…. it is as if the average citizen is for survival satisfied perhaps 85% in his physiological needs, 70% in his safety -metamotivation= growth tendencies needs, 50% in his love needs, 40% in his self-esteem needs, and 10% in -b-needs= being needs; arise out of organism’s his self-actualization needs.” drive to self-actualize and fulfill inherent -“As for the concept of emergence of a new need after satisfaction of the potential (self-fulfillment) prepotent need, this emergence is not a sudden, salutatory -motivation and d-needs take precedence over phenomenon, but a gradual emergence by slow degrees from metamotivation and b-needs nothingness. For instance, if prepotent need A is satisfied only 10%, HIERARCHY OF NEEDS (principle of relative then need B may not be visible at all. However, as this need A becomes potency): satisfied 25%, need B may emerge 5%, as need A becomes satisfied 1. Physiological needs (food, drink, oxygen, 75%, need B may emerge 50%, and so on (1970, pp.27-28) shelter, sex) If one were to make a graph it would be more like a bar graph, 2. Safety needs indicating the strength of the five basic needs in relation to each other, 3. Belonging and love needs (affection & rather than a pyramid with five levels. intimacy) -So, as the lower needs become more chronically gratified, they 4. Self-esteem needs (self-respect & command less attention and the other needs emerge as more powerful respect for others) 5. Self-actualization needs (desire to fulfill determinants of behavior. In terms of the need for self-actualization, it becomes stronger each and every time that there is partial gratification potential) of the lower needs. –as each need is satisfied, the higher-order need -“It is quite true that man lives by bread alone when there is no bread. attains importance But what happens to man’s desires when there is bread and when his -self-actualization is only possible if lower order belly is chronically filled?” (1973, p.157). needs have been met (not necessarly organized by tension reduction) -B-values (e.g. Beauty, Truth, Justice) -Joy v. Suffering. Can be happy and suffer.. Have all worldly desires, but -humans also need to know and understand= still suffer the need to know is more potent than need to Think of it as every point as what you like or what’s safe-- continually understand choosing -according to Maslow, every relationship has the Most people move between pain and suffering-- want to be happy or potential to be a therapeutic one- good safe relationships may protect us from skype -If continually pick survival needs, will probably continue doing that -“Self-actualizing people are not primarily motivated by basic needs; they are primarily metamotivated, by metaneeds Existential dilemma: Safety Growth -Safety before growth: selfish -Growth before safety: heroes? -fully actualized: growth before safety -courage comes from love Carl Rogers -Born in Oak Park, Illinois ( a suburb of Chicago) -little social life outside his family -Fourth of six children (five of which were boys) -avid reader and very independent -Father was a civil engineer and contractor who achieved considerable -family moved to a farm which sparked Rogers’ success in his profession, so family was financially
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