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Hans Eysenck

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Maja Djikic

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Hans EysenckWanted to go beyond the descriptive factor analytic concepts of Cattell and the Big Five Wanted to be able to test a model of personality Connected superfactors biological in nature and influenced by genetics they are orthogonal they have no further correlations that were identified through factor analysis with psychophysical entities arousal etcPsychology should be a rigorous scientific method BiographyBorn in GermanyWas influenced by the war Historical PredecessorsHippocrates suggested that personality could be classified according to a predominance of certain body fluids humors These reflected the four elements of the cosmos There was sanguine phlegmatic melancholic and choleric Immanuel Kant Popularized that doctrine of the four temperaments Organized them according to two basic comparisons feelings melancholic and sanguine and activity phlegmatic and choleric Jung extroversion and introversion Though Hans believed his contribution was ultimately negative due to an emphasis on spiritual things Ernest Kretschmer interested in normal personality types and their abnormal complements Best known for suggesting that people could be classificed on the basis of their body measurements Endomorphy Visceratonia Mesomorphy Somatotonia Ectomorphy Cerebrotonia Sheldon described individuals in terms of traits based on physiques and temperaments Helped in psychometric trait theory Constructing a Model of Personality People are biosocial animals Psychology was at the crossroads of this Focused on model of personality that had two distinct aspects 1 a description of personality derived from factor analytic studies and 2 causal analysis based on experimental tests of deductionsLaws of psychology though making general rules also need to reflect individual differences1 Hypothesize relationship between various personality traits2 Conduct factor analytic this tells us how many dimensions we need to accommodate items that are related to one another studies to identify clusters of traits that indicate underlying superfactors3 Construct biological theory to account for the behaviours associated with the underlying superfactors4 Generate hypothesis from the theory concerning specific testable psychophysical neurological or hormonal components5 conduct experimental studies to validate the theoretical prediction6 Revise the theory where needed in light of the experimental studies
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