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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Humanism

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University of Toronto St. George
Maja Djikic

PSY230H1F L9; Nov. 9, 2011 Transcendental phenomenology Humanism Human beings are able to reflexively Based on philthophy of phenomenology study their own mind as a process can Cognitive = 4 way to think abord think about how we think transcends psychologically; humanism = 3 way 1 level of thinking Background Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) Otto Rank (1884 1939) Father of phenomenology Generally considered one of Freuds most Kant originally distinguished between the talented & important coworkers left, disagreed noumena (what something is in itself, about how to help a person independent of our sensations of it; ex. see Social worker not physician something that exists ) and phenomena (our Each person continually creates his or her reality sensory knowledge of things or actions in Outlook was colored by necessity for human the external world things we experience; beings to express own will, to be independent ex. know and agree that something is a persons chair) Freud discouraged this among colleagues & Though he believed that noumenal reality patients; interpreted as resistant exists, Kant argued that we can never know Quite influential in the area of social work, such Things in themselves directly, and promoted the functional school (as opposed to that, in fact, our mind through its categories the diagnostic school) of social case work of the understanding frames-in the meaning Take dynamic approach to the client, of the noumenal world for us. relatively short-term therapy contact, effect Gained through ntersubjectivity a cure by helping the client to exert his or The only way for a science of psychology her own will in assuming responsibility for to understand anything is through the life actions enable client persons subjective point of view Not by imposing the social workers Nothing can be considered real, unless interpretation of the problem there is an agreement reached Diagnosis or problem definition is secondary to phenomenally by a number of subjective actual change in living people Not trying to confirm predictions about Problem: ex. dreams (you are only theory like Freud, Freud was more about person experiencing it) himself than the patient Need a new language of description as well as Purpose of psychotherapy new method of scientific investigation if to The therapy relationship is for the client and capture distinctively human, non-mechanistic NOT the therapist course of action In each separate case inecessary to create Not introspection, because introspective psychologists assumed they were studying real a theory & technique made for the occasion w/o trying to carry over this individual or noumenal processes solution to next case. develop unique Phenomenology focuses exclusively on the theory for each person phenomenal aspects of experience, that Technical jargon shunned no use, include the essence of meaning (which lies irritate/confuse client in phenomenal, not noumenal, field of experience); ex. agree something is a chair Spontaneity & uniqueness of therapeutic relationship = precious aspect of therapy , so similar meaning to humans what cures rather than the fanciful, high- To mean something: to translate as, to intend to blown theories of therapist as my goal Content doesnt matter, so dif types of Meaning system inextricably linked to our therapy work best for dif ppl, no best sets of goals & values type, choose therapist that suits them Can agree about meanings when we have What is the central problem facing a neurotic? similar values Learning how to express personal will & Ex. eat food of reasonable sizes; interact w thereby take command of own life beings our size bacteria now have Dependent person will enter therapeutic meaning since have microscopes What can phenomenology teach us? relationship by submitting himself to will of therapist It seeks to clarify how we become conscious Resistance of client to theoretical of related events in experience feels real explanations of therapist seen as sign of but isnt real, is just an interpretation within successful therapy (unlike Freud; ex. Dora the person of the real thing took revenge for leaving) One of 1 psychoanalysts who advocated setting Focused on rare persons on the verge of, or termination date for therapy already achieved psychological health Tells client have limited sessions so takes This state of exemplary personal development responsibility, motivated to maximize as = self-actualization treatment effect Also non-representative - but still serving as Patient knows has to help self corrective to long history of focusing on Host of short-term therapies have evolved psychopathology from this general approach (ex. extreme 5 Not everyone is healthy min therapy) Health not simply absence of disease or Saw therapy termination as rebirth can take even opposite of it. Any theory of care of self motivation worthy of attention must deal w highest capacities of healthy & strong man Maslow and Rogers thought of a person as w as well as w defensive maneuvers of potential, particularly Maslow crippled spirits(1970, p.33) Maslow: what kind of tree could you become Healthy personality - possesses sufficient Rogers: what prevents you from becoming that personal fortitude + creativity to be tree, how can you get rid of these obstacles spontaneous & innocent Focus on potential unique to you Innocence Realized studying troubled ppl affects theories Healthy personalitys capacity to live w/o Abraham Maslow pretense, to be selflessly focused on Biographical outline: creative goal Born in New York, eldest of 7 children Dont have to contend to other ppl about Isolated, taunted, friendless, lonely who you are W my childhood, its a wonder Im not a Creative, innocent, & healthy people are psychotic. able to free themselves from distractions, Mother favored younger brothers, punished fears, & petty influences imposed by other Maslow least provocation people, to become more completely Afraid of father themselves, authentic, & less influenced by Had uncle who spent great deal of time w him & a need to placate others - free from contributed to mental stability preventative forces of being self So need just 1 person in envt who dropping masks, dropping efforts to encourages you & isnt psychotic influence, to impress, to please, to be Ex. kids in same family dif friends, dif lovable, to win applause. It could be teachers; enough to significantly reconstruct said so: if have no audience to play to, lives, change paths cease to be actors. W no need to act we Started in behaviorism, became influenced by can devote ourselves, self-forgetfully, to Fromm, Horney, Adler, Benedict, Hull, etc. the problem (1971, p.65). Exodus from WWII, mainly ppl But too hard to move away from all psychologically affected in Europe social interaction, still have a way of Personal experiences also led away from being and image of who you think you behaviorism should be When my baby born was thunderclap that In becoming more our real selves & less the settled things. Looked at this tiny, persons we expect others want
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