What is a drug? A substance is something that alters mind and behaviour.
Blurry line bw what is a drug and what is not?
A substance is something that you take that alters the way you think and
Behaviour without sugar? Diseased/Deceased?
You can overdose on water! LOL.
Substance Abuse: As any substance apart from food and water that effects
hormones- brain functioning, altering normal operations, temporary changes to
Intoxication- what's a toxin? Poisonous …Its a temporary state of being
poisoned ….usually lead to a state of poor judgement, mood change, irritability,
poor/impaired speech and coordination
People who are regularly using and a malapdaptive behaviour is beginning to
development- and are beginning to rely on that substance.
Less severe than substance dependence
Substance dependence: More severe form of drug use. It is repeated del
administration where we begin to see tolerance and withdrawal. Sometimes they
need to continue taking the drug in order to feel normal- reason for that is
withdrawal. Without the drug they feel really lousy. People will take substances to
flatten those negative emotions.
In general, all substances flatten negative emotions. They take away the sad,
bored, upset, angry. They stimulate the reward centre in the brain.
Gambling addiction in DSM 5 but not sexual addiction.
Differ between physical and psychological withdrawal.
Difference bw physical and psychological dependence. Withdrawal from those
drugs can be health threatening. It can make you really sick. You come down so
far you stop functioning.
For substance abuse, 3 of the following should have occurred in the last 12
months (in DSM 4, in DSM 5 its 3 months)- Given in slides
US defines binge drinking- 5 or more drinks in one sitting
For women its 3.
15% of the population- lifetime prevalence 5 times more likely in men than women …
One things all drugs have in common- stimulate the dopamine reward pathway
Fastest growing drug of abuse in NA- Cough syrup…has sedative properties-
and taking large amounts gives you a high…This is now referred to as
robotripping- from robotrussin ….easily available and cheap
How drugs enter the body:
Orally: easiest way…just swallow it…however it is the least efficient …its along
journey from the stomach to the brain….we want it to get into the blood and then
past the blood-brain barrier and affect brain functioning
Injection: very efficient…..gets to the brain in 3-7 seconds ….stick it right into the
blood system…best way- is intra ventricular- straight into the vein….big common
veins- opposite the elbow…if you repeatedly inject in those same veins, they get
damaged and collapse…scar tissue can develop….long term junkies move to the
veins in the crotch
Inhalation : smoking- very easy. turning the drug into a vapour and taking it into
your lungs- super easy and efficient …because your respiratory system is
interconnected with your circulatory system (capillaries)
Absorption : where you are dissolving the drug over the natural barrier you have
bw the inside self and outside world….skin…more specific- epidermis. Some
drugs will easily be adsorbed past that barrier. Places where the blood vessels
are very close to the surface or epidermis.
• Under the tongue- sublingual absorption …or
• the mucous membrane of the nose- cocaine . Or
Four major categories of drugs:
Stimulants: The class of drugs where people CNS stimulates. It is made more
active- and lot of people find that pleasurable. Eg: ecstasy and cocaine. High is
very active. The low is a crash- severe inactivity.
Depressants: Slow down your CNS. Its relaxing. Most common- alcohol.
Depressing the inhibition parts of the brain.
Cannabinoids: Cannabis..Marijuana and Hashish. It gets its own class due to its unique properties. It has a stimulant, depressant and hallucinogenic properties.
Seems to depend upon the person, place , situation and time its taken.
• from the class of opiates
• no medical purpose
• opiates are used for medical purposes though but not heroin.
• endorphins in the brain actually do this.
• taking heroin is like taking a whole load of endorphin like chemicals…barraging
the brain with lots of endorphin like chemical…stimulating the reward
centre of the brain.
• heroin is the strongest opiate
• morphine is used to treat pain- it is an opiate
• comes from the poppy plant
Short term effect-
• directly stimulate the reward centre of the brain
• rush that comes- orgasm X 100..what people say
• produces physical and life threatening withdrawal- you need to take more, very
• tolerance developed very quickly with this drug, need to take
more…..eventually you may overdose
Long term effect:
• death…not clear from OD or suicide cuz withdrawal symptoms are so