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Lecture

substance abuse.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY240H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
What is a drug? A substance is something that alters mind and behaviour. Stimulates behaviour. Blurry line bw what is a drug and what is not? A substance is something that you take that alters the way you think and behave. Behaviour without sugar? Diseased/Deceased? You can overdose on water! LOL. Substance Abuse: As any substance apart from food and water that effects hormones- brain functioning, altering normal operations, temporary changes to the brain. Intoxication- what's a toxin? Poisonous …Its a temporary state of being poisoned ….usually lead to a state of poor judgement, mood change, irritability, poor/impaired speech and coordination People who are regularly using and a malapdaptive behaviour is beginning to development- and are beginning to rely on that substance. Less severe than substance dependence Substance dependence: More severe form of drug use. It is repeated del administration where we begin to see tolerance and withdrawal. Sometimes they need to continue taking the drug in order to feel normal- reason for that is withdrawal. Without the drug they feel really lousy. People will take substances to flatten those negative emotions. In general, all substances flatten negative emotions. They take away the sad, bored, upset, angry. They stimulate the reward centre in the brain. Gambling addiction in DSM 5 but not sexual addiction. Differ between physical and psychological withdrawal. Difference bw physical and psychological dependence. Withdrawal from those drugs can be health threatening. It can make you really sick. You come down so far you stop functioning. For substance abuse, 3 of the following should have occurred in the last 12 months (in DSM 4, in DSM 5 its 3 months)- Given in slides US defines binge drinking- 5 or more drinks in one sitting For women its 3. 15% of the population- lifetime prevalence 5 times more likely in men than women … One things all drugs have in common- stimulate the dopamine reward pathway Fastest growing drug of abuse in NA- Cough syrup…has sedative properties- and taking large amounts gives you a high…This is now referred to as robotripping- from robotrussin ….easily available and cheap How drugs enter the body: Orally: easiest way…just swallow it…however it is the least efficient …its along journey from the stomach to the brain….we want it to get into the blood and then past the blood-brain barrier and affect brain functioning Injection: very efficient…..gets to the brain in 3-7 seconds ….stick it right into the blood system…best way- is intra ventricular- straight into the vein….big common veins- opposite the elbow…if you repeatedly inject in those same veins, they get damaged and collapse…scar tissue can develop….long term junkies move to the veins in the crotch Inhalation : smoking- very easy. turning the drug into a vapour and taking it into your lungs- super easy and efficient …because your respiratory system is interconnected with your circulatory system (capillaries) Absorption : where you are dissolving the drug over the natural barrier you have bw the inside self and outside world….skin…more specific- epidermis. Some drugs will easily be adsorbed past that barrier. Places where the blood vessels are very close to the surface or epidermis. • Under the tongue- sublingual absorption …or • the mucous membrane of the nose- cocaine . Or • rectally. Four major categories of drugs: Stimulants: The class of drugs where people CNS stimulates. It is made more active- and lot of people find that pleasurable. Eg: ecstasy and cocaine. High is very active. The low is a crash- severe inactivity. Depressants: Slow down your CNS. Its relaxing. Most common- alcohol. Depressing the inhibition parts of the brain. Hallucinogens Cannabinoids: Cannabis..Marijuana and Hashish. It gets its own class due to its unique properties. It has a stimulant, depressant and hallucinogenic properties. Seems to depend upon the person, place , situation and time its taken. Heroin (depressant) • from the class of opiates • illegal • no medical purpose • opiates are used for medical purposes though but not heroin. • endorphins in the brain actually do this. • taking heroin is like taking a whole load of endorphin like chemicals…barraging the brain with lots of endorphin like chemical…stimulating the reward centre of the brain. • heroin is the strongest opiate • morphine is used to treat pain- it is an opiate • comes from the poppy plant Short term effect- • directly stimulate the reward centre of the brain • rush that comes- orgasm X 100..what people say • produces physical and life threatening withdrawal- you need to take more, very quickly • tolerance developed very quickly with this drug, need to take more…..eventually you may overdose Long term effect: • death…not clear from OD or suicide cuz withdrawal symptoms are so sign
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