• Cortex is responsible for making conscious questions
• 20% ppl experience a psychopathology in their lifetime
• 10% of ppl are currently experiencing a psychopathology
• Anxiety is the most common psychopathology.
• Anxiety is not a bad thing. It is a basic emotion that is functional.
• Emotions help us adapt to changing world
• There is strong relationship between emotions and motivation.
• Emotions become maladaptive when the level of anxiety exceeds to the point
where it interferes with ur ability to function. –this is a anxiety disorder
• Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state ranging from mild unease to intense fear.
• A certain amount of anxiety, however, is normal and serves to improve
• Anxiety rouses you to action. It gears you up to face a threatening situation. It
makes you study harder for that exam, and keeps u on ur toes when ur making a
speech. In general, it helps you cope.
• Happiness is signalling approach, while disgust is signalling avoid.
• Too much of any emotion is maladaptive.
• Ppl who are constantly happy no longer know how to avoid adverse stimulus.
• How do we measure anxiety?
• Psychopathology is 1 standard deviation from the norm.
• Anxiety has 3 components: 1) psychophysiological: physical reactions to anxiety.
Exmple: sweating. Startle response: hard wired response, wide eyed, pupil
dilation, sweating. Is reflexive. Startle is a reflex in the autonomic nervous
system. We are hard-wired to perceive loud noises as dangerous. Startle response
is the beginning of anxiety. We can somewat objectively measure activation of
the nervous system, and increase in arousal, anxiousness. Fight or flight is
activated by startle response. Flight is preferable, fight is for being cornered.
Rodents do not have fight or flight response. They have fight or freeze response.
We can measure physical signs of anxiety. – heart rate, sweat, reparation rate. Lie
detector test measures anxiety. U can train urself to cheat lie detector tests by
controlling level of anxiety (activating parasympathetic nervous system). We have
increased arousal to other emotions besides anxiety. Difficult 2 distinguish
psychophysiologically one emotion from another. Psychophysiological measures
are not the most common measure of anxiety.
• 2) psychological component: lack of concentration, irritability and fear. Measured
through self-report. Likirt scale used to measure anxiety. Lot of subjectivity-
causes error. Patient may not be lying when they misrepresent their condition-
malingering. Self-report is most relied upon
• 3) psychosocial/interpersonal component: inclination to cling to ppl, facial
expression. Uses observation to measure this aspect of anxiety. High degree of
• Anxiety is generated when we perceive to be threatened.
• Fear: response to a direct threat.
• Endorphins are released becuz of fear-opiates r similar to endorphins • 3 areas of the brain that are important in emotion: 1. motivation component of
emotion-hypothalamus – responsible for acting on the pituitary and releasing
hormones. Linked to the limbic system. Limbic system is wat generates emotion:
-includes cingulated gyrus and amygdala. anxiety is generated amygdala. In an
experiment, the amygdale was bilaterally lesioned in chimpanzees. absolute lack
of neophobia was observed. Kluver Bucy syndrome: bilateral damage to
Amygdala. Signals sent to frontal lobe of cerebral cortex, responsible for co-
ordination. Prefrontal cortex: judgement, decision making and problem solving.
Ppl with psychopatholog