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abnrmal psy lec 2.doc

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Abnormal psychology lecture 2 • Assessment- diagnosis- treatment • Assessment is an ongoing process • Diagonis is wrong frequently • Diagnosis does not stop with treatment • If treatment is unsuccessful we go back to diagnosis • Assessment: three types 1. interview –verbal interaction –most common form of assessment 2. Observation: - most common in children 3. standard testing – exclusive to psychology –statistically normed tests – popular tests r published • Process of assessment: 1. referral –reference from another mental health professional that says an individual indicates that an indvdual requires a formal assessment. – usually comes from a general practitioner –nurse practitioner can give referrals –trained as nurses – can prescribed drugs –trained in pharmacology –physicians assistants can refer patients for formal psychological assessment – assesment will provide assessor with orientation of major problems –basic info will also b collected, includes identifying info: name, job status, male/female, medical status, symptoms, onset of disorder. – ppl r referred to ppl who are speacialized in assessing a specific psychopathology. Psychologist do testing. • 2 things a psychologist keep in mind 1. the psychologists r observing the beh at one point in time in one location. , when a psychologist first sees a patient, the patient feel anxiety, 1rst course of action is to decrease anxiety. We must first need to devlp a relationship with the patient. This process of devlping a relationship is called rapport. Allows for optimal data. 2. observer bias: ppl comes to psychologist with referral, that referral is a wrking hypothesis, that wrking hypothesis may or may not b correct. Symptoms can b part of othr mood disorders. • Observation: 4 categories of beh observation 1. general appearance and attire –r there any obvious extremes in appearance –abnormalities, deformities. Cleasiness, does their appearance fit age and SES, grooming- poorly groomed indication of psychosis 2. emotional gestures and facial expressions. (body language). –subtle but universal (happy, sad, anger, fear, disgust, surprise – geneitcally pre preprogramed emotions). 3. gross and fine motor acts: - area of responsivity that is cause psychological, neurological, pharmacological, physiological variables. Extreme under activity, abnormal overactivity, catatonia th –psychotic disorder. 4 category: context of verbalization: syntax, structure. –is it appropriate for their edu, age and SES. Rough indication of intelligence. Neologism: making up new words- psychosis, neurological disorder. Makes up facts –neurological disorder called: confabulation. Hyperaemia: clients remember minute details from past. – indication of OCD. • Interview: a more formal observation –in that responses r expected. Questions based on info from referral. –gets data on client + details 1rst thing is to know who they r as ppl. –ppl seek help when pathology becomes dysfunctional. – psychologist needs to know the nature of dysfunction – gives prognosis data: what is likely to happen. Referral, assessment and treatment can b done by same person. 2. knowledge of illness is gathered. 3. family history is gathered. –family environment and genetic history is gathered. Interview is also to develop rapport. 2 types of interview: structured and unstructured interviews. Structured: set of questions that u r required 2 ask –structured so that no info is missed. –bad for rapport. Unstructured interview: there is a chance u might missed something. Ask questions interviewr feels r important –now ur just having a conversation with the person. Structured: high reliability, poor rapport, unstructured: low reliability, high rapport. – interview often used to form diagnosis. Interviewers record important info discard unimportant info. U r monitoring cooperativeness and truthfulness of client. Ppl who think they have a disorder but don’t is known Malingering. 3 type of assessment: standard testing - psychology founded 1930s and 40s, -WW2 was happening -used to find out wat ppl r behaviourally good at in order to find how they would contribute
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