MENTALHEALTH IN THE COMMUNITY-CH 18
• Prevalence of disorder outstrips availability of help
o Government collect stats on government issues ie/crime stats involving emotional
disturbed persons. In any year, not lifetime prevalence, 1 in 5 of us is suffering from a
psychopathology, about twenty percent, probably much higher.Address
psychopathology by community psychology ie. Intervention by specific group.
Who is at risk for developing a psychopathology? People with a history of
psychopathology. Research strongly shows people with past psychopathology are at
• Prevention and mental health promotion
Three types of prevention
• Primary reduces the incidence- reduce stress, cannot eliminate. Come up with strategies
to deal with stress. Where the stress is coming from, the nature and what tools the person
has to reduce.
• Secondary treatment-someone displaying symptoms needs to be treated. Will intervene
to reduce the display, the expression of the symptoms
• Tertiary covers rehabilitation- frequently the symptoms will come back and be chronic.
It can turn into a disability.
Q: Define the three types of prevention?
A: Primary prevention: involves intervention which reduces the incidence of disorder (is
practiced prior to the presence of the disorder)
Secondary prevention: reduces the duration of the disorder (before the disorder has caused
suffering or disability)
Tertiary prevention (treatment): practised after suffering or disability from the disorder has
been experienced, with the goal of preventing further disorder (reduces disability).
Community psychology: psychiatric nurse, give options, promote mental health and well being.
Community psychologist functions as an enabler, a consultant, planner rather than an expert in
diagnosis and treatment. Working style emphasis collaboration and participation of diverse
groups. From the community, diverse groups for planning, implementing and evaluating
UniversalApproach- designed to include all individuals. Number one reason to us and abuse
substances is availability. All kids should say no. Is designed to include all individuals in a
particular geographical area (for example, a neighbourhood or city) or particular setting (a
school or workplace).
Selective Prevention- high risk groups. Preventing risky behaviour and risky thoughts in high
risk groups. Is based on the assumption that there are known risk factors for certain mental
health problems, and it is most effective to target individuals most exposed to these risk
Indicated groups- looking at children, most at risk. Indicated group of children-intervention,
prevention, at risk group of children are no parents-a psychological condition stressful. Indicated
groups will be target of selective prevention may be children without caregivers. Mental health promotion in Canada
• Its proactive- identify problems before they occur or get worse. Seeks to promote mental
health before mental health problems have taken root.
• Focuses on populations-not individuals: can be universal approach-general population or
selective approach: a specific subset of that population ie/substance abuse most common in
native canadians least concern the subset of the population not a concern in muslim and
• Multidimentional (families, communities, etc.): integrated sets of operations including
individuals, settings, communities and societal structures. Interactions with the families,
communities where they live, and society in general, governmental structures
• Its ongoing: families change, communities and population change. Ie/this class would
have looked different thirty years ago. Not time limited intervention.
Mental health promotion emphasizes supporting individual resilience, creating supportive
environments and addressing the influence of mental health. Specific goals of mental health
promotion including protective factors that help people to deal with events reduce risk
factors for diminished mental health among people.
• Social level strategies-social policies that indirectly affect positive mental health through
socio-political conditions such as economic inequality, housing, education, racism, and sexism.
Second policy stream- identifying characteristics of more proximal supportive environment such
as schools, churches and work places.
• Community level strategies- empowering community residents. Empowerment refers to
perceived and actual control over one's life. Enhance self-determination and democratic
participation. Building a strong sense of community and social support. Mental health can be
enhanced in family, school, work.
• Individual level strategies - promotion in incompetence's s