Psychopathology of adults and adolescents-CH 15
Modern child psychopathology
• DSM intially had two cateogries
• DSM IV-10 major cateogries
• Last disorder in each is "NOS" not otherwise specified, which is change on DSM
Intectual ability can tell right from childhood and autism can be diagnosed right from childhood-
mental retardation and childhood schizophrenia now called autism. Some children lose touch
with reality, as autism is recognized as-a psychiotic condition. These people don’t live in the
same world or not responding int eh same way to stimuli compared with other infants. That term
was abondoned because hallmarks for schizophrenia is halluciantions, dillusions so now
abondoned and replaced with autsim. Mental retardation changed to intellectual ability.
Intellectual disability only reffered to people with a deficit in intellect.
DSM iv- two cateogries DSM V-not more categories of child disorders instead eliminated. DSM
IV had a section on child disorders, meant that it first saw symptoms in childhood.Adults can
showADHD but is different then childrens. Categories have been reorganized into sections with
similar sections in DSM V, autism is in psychiotic disorders.Age of concent is 12. adolence-still
growing, when brain is fully developed that’s when reaches adulthood. Brain is continuing to
grow until 23. adolesence same as 13-18. childhood is pre 13. after 3 brain stops working.At 18,
you become an adult.
Diagnosed in infancy 18-2 (toddler 2-4) , childhood 5-12, adolesence 13-18/19, adulthood. Not
clear when adolesence ends and can show up post period.
NOS: doesnt meet the same criteria as the disorder. DSM has eliminated NOS because if it
doesn’t meet specific criteria then don’t have this disorder, combordity. They made the criteria
less specific. To catch more people with that disorder.
• Mental retardation
Dsm iv- emphasized the intellectual disability. There are four cateogries in dsm iv
Mild, moderate, severe, profound based on the level of intelligence.
Below 40-severe, below 20-profound. How well can you adapt to the changing environment?
Intellectual deficit includes adaptation.
• Learning Disorders
Reading Math Writing- split in dsm IV
-controversial cateogry and redifined because a deficit where the child falls behind the
developmental norms and deficits with extreme learning difficulties-dsm iv definition.
Pathology is 2 stadard deviations
1. Motor skill disorders
developmental coordination disorder. Must reach a milestone otherwise a concern. Further
away a child chronigically, fromt eh milestone t, greater the concern. Easy to detect changes. This is statistical-a change in milestone. Further away from the statistical milestone, greater the
concern which remains intact on dsm V
1. Communication disorders
• Expressive disorder
• Mixed expressvie-recpetive
-speaking and understanding disorders, prounications and stuttering. These disorders sometimes
spontaneously remit- See in childhood and adulthood go away on their own, sometimes don’t
require treatment. Unclear language, unusual for childs age, poor grammer, poor prounication.
Doesn’t understand communication appropriatly. Diagnose comboridly in this cateogry for
Phonological-substituting sounds and/or letter also corbid with dyslexia. Stuttering-inability to
get the sounds out when expressing-neurological. When brain grows, stuttering goes away and
stammering. Stuttering and stammering are treatable, cognitive beahvioural therapy.
• Pervasive developmental disorders
Cateogry called atusitic spectrum disorders, each of these disorders are eliminated, dsm V
recognized they are all the same disorders on a continum/spectrum. They look like different
from each other in terms of functioning but same symptoms.
• Autism- dsm iv had different diagnostic cateogries but in dsm v has eliminated
because same disorders on a spectrum. Loss of touch with reality. Extreme social isolation
on dsm iv. Reality they have is not same as other people. Not interested in interaction with
other people only themselves and inanimate objects. Can include any of those symptoms
in varying degress on the spectrum. Mild-people intelligent but don’t interact well.
• Rett's- a behaviour-hand ringing. Not interested in reality, social world only their
hands. Rett's disorder.
Childhood disintegrative disorder- childhood schizophrenia, slow insidious
progression from infancy to non responsive state. Non social.Atwo month old baby must
have a social interaction with caregiver. Infants with autism you cant detect because looks
normal but taken away from caregiver they are indifferent.
• Asperger's - mildest form. Not doing the same thing as other people are doing.
Not dressing, the same or same interest. They are functional, have friends but not fitting in.
nerd. Doesn’t undertadn what other people tke for gra