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Ch. 12 - Personality disorders

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University of Toronto St. George

Lecture 10: Personality Disorders December 1, 2009 Features of Personality Disorders (PDs) (They all are maladaptive) Pattern is manifested in - Cognition (perception of themselves or world or others), affect (range, appropriateness, lability, and intensity of emotions), interpersonal functioning (difficulty in maintaininginitiating relationships, paranoia about others, fear of abandonment), andor impulse control Pervasive - Evident across a wife range of personal, social, and occupational situations People from all aspects of this persons life will probably observe personality disorder traits not just friends or not just family, but both Clinically significant impairment - Personal distress or impairment in social and occupational functioning Personal distress is not necessary such as with people who have anti-social personality disorder, they dont feel distressed at all Early onset and stability - Symptoms evident since at least late adolescence (usually early adolescence to late adulthood) and stable (over time but not necessarily at the same intensity stressors may increase intensity) Classification of PDs - PDs are long standing, maladaptive, inflexible ways of relating to the world - They are diagnosed on Axis-II of DSM - Many problems with classification (can be really difficult to distinguish from normal and abnormalmaladaptive like dependent personality disorder when does dependence in older people cross threshold into disorder) hard to distinguish from Axis-I type disorders - Low reliability in terms of diagnosis (esp. compared to Axis-I) usually dont diagnose a person with Axis-II disorders because of the stigma and may just label them as Axis-II traits - Much less research compared to Axis-I disorders hence dont know much about treatment either DSM-IV Personality Disorders Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric - paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic - histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial Cluster C: Fearful or Anxious - avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
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