Class Notes (834,353)
Canada (508,495)
Psychology (3,518)
PSY240H1 (234)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10. personality.doc

10 Pages
109 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY240H1
Professor
Stephanie Cassin
Semester
Summer

Description
Lecture 10: Personality Disorders Features of Personality Disorders (PDs) (They all are maladaptive) Pattern is manifested in… - Cognition (perception of themselves or world or others), affect (range, appropriateness, lability, and intensity of emotions), interpersonal functioning(difficulty in maintaining/initiating relationships, paranoia about others, fear of abandonment), and/or impulse control Pervasive - Evident across a wife range of personal, social, and occupational situations  People from all aspects of this person’s life will probably observe personality disorder traits – not just friends or not just family, but both Clinically significant impairment - Personal distress or impairment in social and occupational functioning  Personal distress is not necessary – such as with people who have anti-social personality disorder, they don’t feel distressed at all Early onset and stability - Symptoms evident since at least late adolescence (usually early adolescence to late adulthood) and stable (over time but not necessarily at the same intensity – stressors may increase intensity) Classification of PDs - PDs are long standing, maladaptive, inflexible ways of relating to the world - They are diagnosed on Axis-II of DSM - Many problems with classification (can be really difficult to distinguish from normal and abnormal/maladaptive like dependent personality disorder – when does dependence in older people cross threshold into disorder)  hard to distinguish from Axis-I type disorders - Low reliability in terms of diagnosis (esp. compared to Axis-I) – usually don’t diagnose a person with Axis-II disorders because of the stigma and may just label them as ‘Axis-II traits’ - Much less research compared to Axis-I disorders hence don’t know much about treatment either DSM-IV Personality Disorders Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric - paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic - histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial Cluster C: Fearful or Anxious - avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive  Clusters based on superficial similarities, not really by number of traits shared or stats  People can easily have disorders w/ characteristics across more than one cluster CLUSTER A Paranoid PD A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others motives Plus about four of the following… - Suspects that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him/her - Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation - Has recurrent suspicions regarding fidelity of partner - Preoccupied with doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of others - Reluctant to confide in others - Misinterprets neutral comments or events - Persistently bears grudges (and fear that others may use grudges against them) - Affects about 10-30% of - More commonly diagnosed in males - Tends to stay stable over time - Hard to achieve therapeutic alliance since patient may be suspicious of treatmentSchizoid PDA pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions .in interpersonal settings - Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships - Almost always chooses solitary activities - Has little, if any, interest in sexual relationships - Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities (even solitary activities) - Lacks close friends or confidants - Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others - Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity  Focus on impairment and not distress since they aren’t distressed by it  People seeking treatment for this is almost unheard of, since they have no desire to. Hence, prevalence is pretty much unknown  Relatively stable over life  Lack of interest (not embarrassment or fear of rejection) causes them to avoid social relationships/activities/etc, but these symptoms look the same as social anxiety Schizotypal PD A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions or eccentricities of behaviour  Kinda hard to diagnose, since it shares symptoms with schizophrenia; it’s like a mild form of schizophrenia - Ideas of reference - Odd beliefs or magical thinking - Unusual perceptual experiences - Odd thinking and speech - Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation (of others) - Inappropriate or constricted affect (as in schizoid) - Behaviour or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar - Lack of close friends or confidants (related to paranoid/suspicious thinking) - Excessive social anxiety that is associated with paranoid fears  Prevalence is about 3% in population and more prevalent in males  May stay stable, but for many people, may transition into schizophrenia (higher chance of developing schizophrenia in people with schizotypal disorder)  If there is a period of 1 month or more with active symptoms, then that would be considered schizophrenia CLUSTER B Histrionic PD A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking - Uncomfortable in situations in which he/she is not the centre of attention - Interaction with others Is often characterized by inappropriate seductive or provocative behaviour - Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expressions of emotion - Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention - Show self-dramatization, theatrically, and exaggerated expression of emotion - Is suggestive – easily influenced by others - Considers relationships to be more intimate than they are  These symptoms must be really marked to be part of diagnosis  2-3% in population; 10—15% in clinical population  One criticism is that it is gender stereotyped; females more likely to be diagnosed; so females are more often diagnosed (since the criteria isn’t as easily applied to males)  Thought to decrease with age Narcissistic PD A pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy - Has a grandiose sense of self-importance - Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love - Believes that he or she is special or unique and can only be understood by other special people - Has a sense of entitlement - Is interpersonally exploitive (take advantage of others to achieve ends) - Lacks empathy (not understanding where others are coming from) - Envious of others (who they may consider are of higher status) or believes that others are envious of him/her - Shows arrogant behaviours or attitudes (appear really confident/superior but underneath, self esteem is fragile)  Heterogeneity in terms of course between different people  Rarely does anyone seek treatment for narcissistic PD; usually occurs in conjunction with some other disorder like depression Borderline PD A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self image, and affect, as well as marked impulsivity - Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment - A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships - Identity disturbance (no idea what they like, unsure about self-identity, etc) - Impulsivity in areas that are potentially self damaging (like spending sprees, overdosing, bingeing, etc.) - Recurrent suicidal behaviour, gesture, or threats (cutting, burning, puncturing, etc)  could be precipitated by fears of abandonment (like argument with partner) or some intense feelings  may be form of self-punishment (‘I am fat’) - Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (like one day, person may love something and the next, may hate it with a passion) - Chronic feelings of emptiness - Inappropriate, intense anger, or difficulty controlling anger (ties in with impulsivity) - Transient stress-related paranoid or dissociative (cut off from reality/no control) symptoms  Prevalence is ~2% in population; 20% in clinical population  Diagnosed a LOT more often in females  gender stereotypes? (with males, they had to have a much longer standing history of suicide attempts compared to females)  Stable over time from late adolescence to adulthood (or escalates a bit); but subsides when they are older (less suicidal/impulsive behaviours)  Diagnosed more often than other disorders[s] Antisocial PD (or sociopathy) Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 (i.e. must have conduct disorder as a child up to age 15) - Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviours - Deceitfulness - Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead - Irritability and aggressiveness (start physical fights/arguments/assaults) - Reckless disregard for safety of self or others - Consistent irresponsibility (unable to hold job, cannot follow through with financial responsibilities, etc) - Lack of remorse (even if they did something bad, they have no sense of remorse)  3% in males, 1% in females; about 3-30% in clinical pop’n and also much higher in forensic setting  more commonly diagnosed in males; maybe because s
More Less

Related notes for PSY240H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit