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Abnormal Psychology Lecture 2.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Lecture 2 Sept 19, 2012  Last Class  Abnormal Behaviour can be defined in 4 ways  Statistical criteria  Cultural norms  Developmental norms  Frequency, intensity, duration  Looking for behaviours that interfere with daily functioning  Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment  This Class  Etiology: The study of the causes and prevalence of abnormal behaviour  Etiological models of abnormal behaviour  Medical-disease models (aka the Biological model)  Genetic models  There is a clear genetic component to some of these disorders.  Schizophrenia vs. Depression  Schizophrenia (and depression) are genetically tied and if you have someone in the family with one of these, the chances of you getting it is Zeitgeist: The way of the much higher times  The concordance rate in schizophrenia is 50%, the rest is up to Homeostasis is the function environmental factors (most importantly, it’s stress) of the thalamus.   The only mental disorder that is CLEARLY biological and clearly understood is First insane asylum: used to schizophrenia. (This also has a genetic component) charge admission, it was an Depression is similar (and is also genetic.) entertainment event  Schizophrenia CANNOT be treated with psychotherapy like depression can; it is VERY CLEARLY a biological disorder. Malingering: trying to loo Depression: The concordance rate is 80% (higher than it is for schizophrenia) sick  Doesn’t always respond well to the same drug for each person, unlike . schizophrenia.  Schizophrenia meds: They are molecules that are mimicking neurotransmitters and manipulating their levels in the brain. There is too much dopamine in the brain of a schizophrenic, while the drugs most important in treating depression is serotonin (depressed people have too little serotonin).  These two neurotransmitters are very similar, slightly different,  Can be studied through monozygotic twin studies through concordance rates  Stress is a SIGNIFICANT contributing factor to psychopathologies  Biochemical models  Neurophysiological models  Psychoanalytic models  Freud:  Social/Environmental models  Sociocultural models  Emphasises social and cultural determinants. The “stressors”  #1 stressor in the environment: Death in the family  There is a scale from 1-100 and death in the immediate family gets a score of 100  Other significant stressors:  Ending/Starting a significant relationship  Losing or obtaining a job (Socio-Economic Status= SES)  Evidence for these stressor models come from depression studies  Learning models  Work form Pavlov and Thorndike  Conditioning studies  And Skinner that showed that our environment molds who we are  This model views behaviour as primarily determined by learning  I.e. we believe that we are worthless because it’s what we’ve learned, so the therapy for this would be to relearn (Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy= CBT)  Humanistic models  The humanistic paradigm of human psychology; the touchy-feely part  This is where you are taught that you are worthy, good, and loved.  This explores the individuals’ reaction to themselves and the individuals around them.  Explores the exploration of feelings and such  Carl Rogers is a leading figure in this stuff.  Assessment in Psychology  What are the tools that we use to assess what it is?  Come in 3 major “categories”  1. The Interview  Most prominent in the assessment of adult psychopathology  The most telling way of determining psychopathology is what’s called “self-report’; an ask-and-tell method  The biggest issues here are deception, of course  The process of being seen by a mental health professional is brought about by the first stage, Referral  In an emergency room, this is called a ‘triage’.  There is usually an indication from the dedication level of the person coming in to be seen  If someone is being brought by a law enforcement officer, their motivation/dedication would be very low.  Co-morbit means that there are more than one psychopathologies at the same time. Literally means “many sicknesses”, and it’s quite common.  Duration  Onset  Medical Status  The most telling way of psychopathologies in children, which can be obscured by bias from the observer  The chief method of gathering info in children- through observation, with there being 2 caveats  You’re looking at behaviour in a specific point in time, in a specific space (anyone would act differently in a new, strange environment such s a doctor’s office:  Observer bias: be aware that you are looking for behaviours that conform to that initial diagnosis, and this makes misdiagnosis unfortunately frequent  Observational categories to note:  1. General appearance and attire  This can tell a lot about their physical, social, and environmental characteristics.  2. Emotional gestures, facial expressions  Body language  Commonly, you see anxiety at an initial assessment  If you don’t pick up on this right away, they might shut down and you’ll get a misdiagnosis  3. Gross (big) and fine (little) motor acts  Responsivity of the assessed person may be affected by psychological, pharmacological, neurological, physiological problems.  If the person is unusually over/underactive  E.g. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, some [catatonic] forms of schizophrenia  Manic episode? Drug abuse?  Underactive movement  Depression, some [catatonic] forms of schizophrenia  4. The quality of the client’s relationships  Can be indicated by the relationship with the person who brought them in (assuming that someone else brought them in) 
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