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Lecture 5

Abnormal Psychology Lecture 5.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Lecture 5: Mood Disorders Oct 10, PSY240H1F (World mental health day: Depression)  Depression  Probably the most common mood disorder  About 1 in 10 chance of developing depression over one’s lifetime  It is not a ‘funk’, and clinical depression is not a mood that can quickly go away, it sticks around  A permanent alteration in mood state to sadness  The general consensus is that you can see both depression and bipolar disorder in children, but there is debate on that  Mood Disorders  Unipolar disorder (uni= one, pole= extreme) [Depression]  Marked by emotional disturbances (however there are other psychoses and conditions that are derived from emotional disturbances, such as schizophrenia, but here you don’t see emotional affect)  These disturbances spill over to disrupt physical, emotional, sensory, cognitive etc. functioning and can even effect things as basic as colour perception  Major depression  Aka Clinic depression  Like anxiety, sadness has an evolutionary and adaptive basis. Sadness teaches us consequences to help us survive and allow us to process information regarding punishment and reward  It becomes maladaptive when it becomes no longer of any use, but when does it become maladaptive when a loved one dies?  Sleep disturbances, extreme sadness, feelings of worthlessness, suicidal thoughts, etc.  Depression is on the rise, possibly because of better diagnosis, less stigma, or more stressful environments  It is an extremely treatable disorder, most people don’t end their live and do get better, but the chances of it coming back are also very high  Depression (and other disorders) can get better on its own, called spontaneous remission and is not so uncommon  Women are 2:1 more likely to become depressed then men (50% more common!)  When women feel bad about themselves, they feel hopeless, but mean usually feel anger. While hopelessness is in the centre of the definition of depression while anger is not, which may skew the statistics  Depression might not be applicable to people who have a relatively permanent change in mood  One of the earliest treatments (still don’t know why it works, discovered even before ECT) is to not allow the depressed person to sleep, aka sleep deprivation  Initially, when you’re tired you’re grumpy, but with sleep deprivation (at least a full 24 hours without dream sleep) creates an elevated mood and a feeling of being freed from depression, but this doesn’t last  Sleeping more than 9 hours from day-to-day is an indication of depression or some kind of mood disorder (the average is 6-7 hours)  In children  Depression is presented very differently in children in the cases of extreme stress. They become agitated, restless, and they lash out  It is speculated that it’s a mood disorder in response to stressors and is largely seen in other family members  Treatment for depression in adults doesn’t work as well on children, and SSRIs are now not recommended for children with depression  The outcome is likely to be very negative and create even more suicidal thoughts  The speculation for this is kids and teenagers are more impulsive and SSRIs can give them back their motivation but not their happiness = potential suicide  Dysthymic disorder  May be called “depression-light”, as it’s a lower grade of depression where one may be able to be depressed and high-functioning, called “dysthymia”  While major depression it’s treatable and can go away quickly, but dysthymia does not and therefore some people liken it to personality disorders  Not as severe as a major depression but lasts for a long time  “Double depression” is a major depression on top of a dysthymic disorder which is harder to treat  Main difference between this and major depression is less intensity and higher duration  Melancholia  Not a pathology, not seen as abnormal behaviour  This is what people experience when losing a job or a loved one, and can turn into a major depression  Treatments  ECT (no longer used)  Frontal lobotomy for severe depression  Ipronizaid (Lasried?)was originally used as an antibiotic and it was found to make people feel good when they were in final stages of a bacterial infection, which lead to research of it becoming an antidepressant  Found to inhibit –oxydase (oxydase is an enzyme, and enzymes break down other molecules). This inhibited the breakdown of monoamines (serotonin, dopamine, and neurepinephrine), so you have mor
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