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Lecture 4

Abnormal Psychology Lecture 4.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Lecture 4 Oct 3, PSY240  Finishing off Lecture 3  Treatment  Somatic approaches  These are frequently radical and invasive  With the exception of drug therapy, these are not frequently used  ECT  Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy (convulsive= it involves a seizure)  Used extensively in the past, but currently not so much (still happens though)  Used particularly to treat schizophrenia (as were ice bathed, wrapping, etc.)  Severe depression is still treated with ECT  It is effective, but sometimes depression comes back  Not a psychosis but it looks psychotic. They do not eat, drink, move, or do anything. This isn’t common but not that rare either  Usually, medication and psychotherapy are the standard method of treatment  But the problem is consent; someone who isn’t responding cannot provide consent and therefore ECT is typically administered without patient consent  The main side effect is memory loss, called “retrograde amnesia”, meaning that past long-term memories are lost  (Anterograde amnesia means that you can’t build new memories)  ECT now is preformed unilaterally  In the past, electrodes are put on both sides of the head to make all of the neurons fire at the same time (this is a seizure)  Now, an electrode is only applied on one side of the head (usually right side). This still causes the brain to seize but there is a reduction in memory loss  Psychosurgery  Has been used in the past and is still used (most frequently in children)  Epilepsy  Split-brain surgery to cure severe epilepsy  An epileptic focus may be found where the seizures originate and sometimes the treatment is to remove the focus of the seizure  Not conducted for psychoses anymore after drug therapy  One of the world-famous places for children psychosurgery is Sick Children’s here in Toronto  A surgical technique usually used to separate or remove parts of the brain, and they are permanent  Lobectomy = removal of a lobe  Lobotomy = separation of a lobe (and therefore they have no function anymore)  Lobotomy (one of the brain lobes are removed, usually a frontal lobe which has the modification of emotional output. So if you remove this you eliminate the affective part of the psychosis, making them emotionless or “flat affect” [while depression is “sad affect”])  Ice pick procedure – through the eye socket, to the front of the brain, swipe it, and it disconnects the front of the brain from the rest  Frontal lobe processes not taken into account that were also being eliminated by the frontal lobotomy: judgement, decision-making, problem-solving  Psychoactive drug therapy  Most commonly used somatic or biologic approach to treating psychopathology  Psychoactive substances are divided into four classes  Stimulants  Stimulate your CNS (Central Nervous System)  Depressants  Slow down your CNS  Used for epilepsy  Cannibinoids  Marijuana  Has both or all of the effects of other classes of drugs; stimulant, depressive, and hallucinogen qualities  Hallucinogens  More frequent in experimental research than therapeutic research  Lecture 4  Anxiety  Most common psychopathologies  Involves the increased physiological arousal, feelings of apprehension, fear, dread (although fear and anxiety are psychologically/physiologically separate)  Anxiety is not a bad thing, it’s a necessary [negative] emotional response  It’s a basic, built-in emotion that either motivates us towards or away from a stimulus  Motivation is dictated by the hypothalamus  Other basic emotions: happy, sad, fear, disgust, and surprise. All are cross-cultural, hard-wired, and have adaptive features  Emotion has both a cognitive (you realise that frightens you) and a physiological component (hyperventilating)  They are adaptive and help us function in the everyday world  Anxiety can be maladaptive if the intensity, duration, and frequency are higher than meant to be adaptively and interferes with certain aspects of life  Anxiety attacks can become psychotic-like where the person can lose touch with reality, depersonalise, and even forget her own name. S/he feels like they’re having a heart attack is a panic attack  Many drugs to treat anxiety are habit-forming  Slideshow: What is Anxiety:  An unpleasant emotional state ranging from mild unease to intense fear  A certain amount of anxiety is normal and serves to improve performance  It rouses you to action, gears you to face a threatening situation, makes you study harder for that exam, keeps you on your toes when your e making a speech. In general, it helps you cope.  It prepares you for a threat  Irrational anxiety: a threat that has no rational reality. If you perceive something to be threatening and it is not = phobia  The number 1 fear is public speaking (reported by North Americans)  Number 2 is death  Anxiety has 3 major components:  Psychophysiological component  Racing heart, shortness of breath, sweating, tingling, dizziness, abdominal, pupil dilation (bigger) discomfort  Pupils dilate to allow a greater amount of visual informati
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