Class Notes (809,452)
Canada (493,718)
Psychology (3,457)
PSY240H1 (233)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Hywel Morgan

Lecture 8: Substance Abuse PSY240, Nov 14 Substance Abuse Common disorder among the general population, especially university students One of the most common psychopathologies Often co-morbid with depression and/or anxiety Caffeine is the most commonly used and abused mind-altering substance It increases alertness It stimulates your Autonomic (specifically Sympathetic) Nervous System There was an experiment, where there were 2 groups of drivers; one had coffee (caffeine) and the other decaf coffee. Did it affect their reaction time and alertness? Those who had one cup of coffee had reaction times that improved (decreased reaction time and increased alertness) Another experiment compared a group that had two cups of coffee versus one and no cups Reaction time got even better Then another experiment with three cups of coffee This group had an even more decreased reaction time, which resulted in overreaction and decreased control The need for a cup of coffee to feel normal and be able to function is a phenomenon called tolerance Not having that cup of coffee can cause withdrawal Caffeine withdrawal can consist of: fatigue, irritability, headache Nicotine Its very rare for there to be a moderate smoker Moderate cigarette smoking is largely un-researched Overdose is taking so much of this substance that it become lethal Caffeine, for the most part, cannot be ODd on (to a lethal extent) Dehydration, jittery, heart palpitations, and hallucinations can result in drinking too much caffeine This is called caffeine-induced psychosis and is acknowledged by DSM-IV This is common among university students A drug is not very easy to define Something that you would insert into your body that affects your behaviours and thought processes; mind-altering People often think of mind-altering substance as something that has a direct effect on our mind and body However, sugar can be mind- and behaviour-altering (kids on Halloween). So, is sugar a drug? Yes, but we dont think of it as a drug This is an obtuse (or abstract) example of a drug The staff at a treatment centre (in-patient treatment) for drug abuse in the United States noticed that one of the patients was spending more and more time in the washroom, and it became progressively worse to where this patient took his/her mattress to the washroom Turns out s/he was ingesting copious amounts of water. So much water that this person didnt even have time to leave the washroom What would be the incentive? It changes the pH level (acidity) of your blood [the normal pH level of your blood is about 7 {between 7 and 8}] to become less acidic *higher pH level+ which gives you a buzz So, is water a drug? Technically, yes. You can even overdose on water We are going to cover in class the typical drugs that can change behaviour and thoughts, but keep in mind that many different things can be considered a drug Overview: Terminology Substance dependence Repeated self-administration resulting in tolerance and withdrawal Substance abuse Less severe pattern of use leading to life difficulties and health risks Drug of abuse Substance that alters consciousness Depressants, stimulants, cannabinoids Classes of Drugs (were covering 4 categories in class) Stimulants (includes caffeine) CNS (Central Nervous System) stimulants They stimulate (uppers) the brain and make the brain work harder and faster This means that theyre making neurons fire more frequently and in greater numbers In many circumstances thats beneficial (in small doses) There are drugs that stimulate the brain a little more vigorously such as cocaine, nicotine, amphetamines, crystal methamphetamine, ecstasy All of these drugs are giving you a high A high is a pleasurable affect All these drugs are giving you a drug either directly or indirectly Theyre stimulating the pleasure part of your brain This takes place in the reward centre of the brain right around the midbrain area The neurotransmitter in action is dopamine Sex has the same effect Depressants (including alcohol) Have the opposite effect of stimulants Theyre slowing your brain down The most commonly and widely used depressant is alcohol Of course, you can definitely overdose on alcohol Before you kill yourself with alcohol, you pass out These also make you feel good, relaxed, happy There are depressants that can kill you even in small doses Such as tranquillizers, opiates (heroin) Since these suppress your CNS, too much suppressing can cause your heart to not beat and you will die Cannabinoids (weed) Main drug in this category is marijuana Usually refers to the leaf of the cannabis plant (grows naturally) The sap can also be extracted, which is much more concentrated The active ingredient is THC In a tobacco leaf the psychoactive (drug) substance is nicotine, but the two leaf-derived drugs work very similarly with the main difference being the different active ingredient This also means that there are some similar aspects such as cyanide in marijuana leaves as well However, it is less addictive than nicotine and there are no cases of lethal marijuana overdose Different varieties, but all cannabis plants This gets a category of its own because of its unique effect on the NS It usually depends on the environment in which its taken and the state o
More Less

Related notes for PSY240H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.