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PSY260H1S Lecture 1

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Daniela Bellicoso

PSY260H1S L1; Jan 8, 13 o Very enthusiastic about seeing 2 wife – greets her when she re-enters room as if she was gone The Psychology of Learning & Memory: Ch. 1 for a long time o History in the text will be covered on test o Doesn’t rmbr his kids or 1 wife o As soon as he finishes conducting, he starts Learning, Plasticity, & Memory shaking uncontrollably – his frontal lobes keep firing but there’s no where left to store this info  Learning: how changes in bhvr arise as a result of  body in shock experience interacting w the world o Keeps detailed diary – says he wrote it, if asked o Requires changes in the way neurons fn & then he says he doesn’t write them fire w one another The Neuroscience of Learning & Memory: Ch. 2 o Neural circuits must go thru changes, neurons themselves can change o As such…learning requires plasticity A Quick Tour of the Brain  Plasticity: basically “flexibility” / “change-ability” o Neural Plasticity: change in the fn or organization of neurons due to experience/previous activity  Changes in size, shape, firing power o Synaptic Plasticity: ability of synapses to change due to experience  How dif synapses form o Allow us to bring changes in bhvr & fn o Facilitates learning How do we store what we have learned?  Memory: allows us to keep a record of past experiences acquired thru learning  There are many ways to learn & many ways to store the memories of what is learned. These are topics that we will be discussing in this course  The Case of Clive Wearing  Was a highly regarded symphony conductor  In 1985, due to a rare condition where herpes simplex virus infected his brain, he lost his memory o Started w harsh persistent headaches for a few days  fever  swelling of brain  Brain thought as the seat of the body by scientists  His hippocampus was permanently damaged  Neuroscience: scientific study of the brain & rest of the o Lost declarative memory – destroyed in ppl NS who suffer amnesia, while procedural  Nervous System (NS): organism’s system of tissues memory remains intact specialized for info collection, distribution & processing  His memory now only lasts btwn approx 7-30s o Includes neurons o Forgets the question he’s answering o Divergence  makes each species NS different o Ex. Forgetting about his niece’s wedding  Neurons: collect incoming info from sensory systems &  Only able to recognize his 2 wife Deborah rest of body  process this info  send out a o Memory of his wife might be stored elsewhere  While his memory is gone, he can still rmbr how to play coordinated body response o Dif shapes, types of neurons piano & conduct a choir  In humans the brain is one very important component of o Procedural memory undamaged the nervous system o Tho does not rmbr that he can play music o Humans – higher level  Worst case of amnesia ever known o Cockroaches – invertebrate, regional control o “never had a dream or thought” o “never seen a doctor, they’re incompetent” The Nervous System  Has a great team of doctors CNS:  Brain + Spinal Cord  Bulk of learning & memory action takes place here  Connects bidirectionally w rest of body/PNS thru o Afferent nerves (carry info into CNS) o Efferent nerves (carry info out of CNS) PNS:  All nerve fibers, ganglia etc outside the CNS o Motor & sensory neurons  Nerve fibers carry sensory info to the CNS & then carry instructions from the CNS back to muscles + organs  Somatic Division – control skeletal muscular, also carry info from sensory organs  Autonomic Division/NS – takes info from spinal & cranial nerves  info to heart, lungs, genitals, other Cerebral Cortex: thin tissue that covers the top & sides of organs the brain in most vertebrates o ~2mm thick  Only vertebrates have both a CNS & PNS o Covers a lot of space ~ double page of newspaper o Covers many subcortical structures: Principal Division of the Cerebral Cortex 1. Thalamus: o Relays sensory info received from PNS into brain. i. Touch, sight, sound, etc. o Smell info does not go thru thalamus 2. Hypothalamus: located directly underneath thalamus o Control of motivated bhvrs o Keeps body temp normal o Allows us to engage in sexual activity o Drinking, feeding 3. Basal ganglia: o Grp of structures located in each hemispheres Lobe Function i. Normally bilaterally symmetrical Frontal Includes motor projection area & Broca’s area o Planning & producing smooth skilled movements (communication) i. Feed self, put food on fork, hit a soccer ball Helps to carry out muscular movements o Disorders: Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, & Obsessive Compulsive Disorders Parietal Includes primary sensory projection area 4. Cerebellum: o Muscular coordination & eqm Temporal Includes primary auditory projection area, o Located in hindbrain Wernicke’s area (understanding word- 5. Limbic System: including... meaning), subcortically the amygdala & o Hippocampus: learning new info about facts, & hippocampus remembering autobiographical events i. CW can’t form new memories or rmbr old ones o Amygdala: important for adding emotional content Occipital Includes primary visual projection area (esp fear) to memories & evaluating stimuli Human Subcortical Structures Observing the Brain: Structural Neuroimaging  Structural neuroimaging allows us to get an image of the living brain. o Doesn’t tell us what’s going on, just what’s there
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