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PSY260H1S Lecture 2

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Daniela Bellicoso

PSY260H1S L2; Jan 15, 13 o Declarative memory: typically includes episodic & semantic memory. Refers to those memories that can Episodic & Semantic Memory: Ch. 3 be “declared” o Contrasts w “non declarative memory” Behavioural Processes  Other researchers may look at episodic & semantic  Episodic Memory: memory for a specific autobiographical memory as explicit memory event o Explicit memory: includes episodic & semantic memory. Tend to be memories of info “you know that o Includes spatial (where) & temporal (when) context o Info “we rmbr” you know” o EVENT memory o Contrasts w “implicit memory” o Term coined by UofT researcher Endel Tulving Episodic vs. Semantic Memory (according to textbook)  Semantic Memory: memories for facts of general knowledge about the world Episodic Memory Semantic Memory o Contrasts to episodic memory because NOT spatially Autobiographical: “I rmbr” Factual: “I know” or temporally tagged Can be communicated flexibly – in a format other than it was o Info “we know” acquired o FACT memory Constantly accessible (u know that u know) Tagged w spatial & temporal Not necessarily tagged w a Episodic vs. Autobiographical Memory context context  Autobiographical memory is different than episodic Learned in a single exposure Can be learned in a single memory. These terms are not interchangeable exposure, but can also be  Episodic memory involves one’s memory for specific strengthened by repetition autobiographical events o Conversely, according to Wheeler et al. (1997): Can Nonhumans Have Episodic Memory? Autobiographical memory includes both episodic  In humans, assess semantic memory via Q & A & semantic memories. o How about in animals? o Holland & Kensinger (2010): Autobiographical  You can measure things like food location & memory is built on our recollection of specific shock avoidance to check for semantic personal events memory formation o Autobiographical memory is believed to contain  Put in cage  give foot shock  take animal memories of events that occurred during the course away; Test: if learned to avoid specific area  of one’s lifetime…personally experienced events  Conversely episodic memory is thought to avoid it due to previous foot shock  We know episodic memory exists in humans allow us to rmbr experiences that occurred o How about in animals? during our life  More difficult to assess; does it exist or not?  A very small grp of ppl in the world have been confirmed to have superautobiographical memory: they can recall in  Tulving believes animals cannot re- experience events (have no episodic great & vivid detail the majority of their life experiences memory, can’t do mental time-travel) and events ranging from highly important to extremely mundane events Clayton & Dickinson, 1999 o Can almost picture the event  Studied scrub jay birds w intent of finding proof of episodic o Ex. Rmbr what one eat, wore; day of week, date memory in birds  Birds were able to hide worms & nuts in sand-filled Episodic & Semantic Memory compartments of an ice cube tray Both episodic & semantic memory: o Typically the birds prefer worms to nuts…but after a period worms decay  can be communicated flexibly  Food recovery by birds allowed after 4 hrs or 124 hrs o don’t have to report in sequence o Tested at 4 hrs: birds generally retrieve worms to eat  are generally accessible to conscious recall o so can rmbr right away o Tested at 124 hrs: birds generally retrieve nuts to eat  These results demonstrate that scrub jays rmbr: o 1. Where they have stored food  Ppl who have amnesia & cannot acquire new episodic o 2. What type of food was stored & for how long memories can still learn new skills, but when questioned about these skills they will deny having them or knowing  Know how long it takes for the specific foods to decay how to conduct them  So in your own opinion, does this prove episodic memory? o Some researchers argue yes, but not according to  Episodic & semantic memories are sometimes classified under the umbrella term, declarative memory. Endel Tulving Human Acquisition and Use of Episodic & Semantic Memory Memories have 3 distinct stages: 1. Info must be encoded (stored)  Studies in depressed vs. healthy controls asked to recall TV 2. The memory must be retained (kept) shows that aired for a short time recently vs. up to 15 years 3. The memory must be retrieved when needed ago  Many factors affect these stages  Healthy controls: show better memory for names of  Episodic & semantic memories go thru these stages shows that are more recent or consistent memory for a select few shows from a few yrs before Better Memory for Info that Relates to Prior Knowledge o Most forgetting occurred in the first decade  Basic principle of memory: it is easier to rmbr [new]  Shows from 10 yrs back vs. 15 yrs back were info that u can relate to [old] things or info u already approx equally recalled know of or about  Suggests if you can still rmbr a fact after a few  The effect of being able to organize novel incoming info in months, you are more likely to rmbr it long relation to other info we already have is limited to term encoding  Depressed subjects: also showed better memory for  So how does this relatability principle relate to studying? more recent shows, w tapering off for later ones o Why it’s good to even skim the textbook before class o So same pattern  It’s how deeply you encode the material, how deeply o However, when given electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT), their memory for recent shows you interact w it, how deeply you understand it, that affects how easy it is to recall later on were temporarily disrupted, while older ones remained intact  Squire’s findings support the idea that there is a consolidation period for semantic & episodic memories o Consolidation Period: length of time during which new episodic & semantic memories are vulnerable and easily lost or altered. o Ex. Can be lost due to brain trauma; does go back to normal a few days after ECT  Animals also have a memory consolidation period Duncan, 1949: o Trained rats on a task, then gave ECT after timed intervals o Rats who got ECT:  20 min post training: memory severely disrupted  1 hr or more post training: very little memory disruption o Shows even in animals older memories were fairly stable, while newer memories were more  Study: told story to grp of ppl vulnerable to disruption o Some ppl 1 saw the pic, so could relate story to pic  ~60% recall – high but not perfect Transfer-Appropriate Processing o Ppl who didn’t see pic 1 had significantly harder  Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon: condition where one time rmbr-ing - ~30% remains on the verge of retrieving a word or name that he or  Even if they saw the pic after she is certain they know, but continues to be unsuccessful at recalling it to memory at that specific moment Deeper Processing at Encoding Improves Recognition Later o This info is not lost, but rather temporarily  More deeply we process something from the start, the inaccessible more likely we will have an easier time recalling it later  Potential reason for this phenomenon: o Transfer-Appropriate Processing: principle that o We call this “depth of processing” retrieval of info is more likely to occur if the available  Depth of Processing: degree to which we analyze or cues at recall are similar to those available at process new info encoding o Generally deeper info processing leads to better o Try to think of things in the way you’ll be using them rmbr-ing of that info  better recall The Forgetting Curve & Consolidation More Cues Means Better Recall  New info we take in that survives the critical first few days Several forms to test recall … might last in memory indefinitely  Some forms are more difficult than others:  According to Ebbinghaus, most forgetting occurs in the o Free Recall > Cued Recall > Recognition first few hrs or dys after learning  Free Recall: memory test where you are simply asked to generate the info from memory Work by Squire (1975, 1989):  Cued Recall: memory test involving a prompt or recall aid o Loftus: Memory = suggestive, malleable for the info you are being asked to generate  Recognition: memory test that involves picking out a Brain Substrates studied item from a list of possible options  1930s: Wilder Penfield mapped the role of various cortical areas by electrically stimulating dif areas of When Memory Fails the cortex to see how a person would respond 1. Interference o Ppl that were already going in for surgery (often for 2. Source Amnesia seizures) 3. False Memory o No pain   plotting of the sensory cortex, so we now know Interference which areas are involved in processing sensory info  Interference: when 2 memories overlap in context, the  He also helped to plot the association cortex: helps strength of either or both memories is reduced associate info within & across modalities o Proactive Interference: old info can disrupt new o Ex: this helps us link words w visual images of the learning object & its associated semantic info   hard to recall new info  Penfield:  Ex. Hard to rmbr new phone # after moving o Oxford University o Retroactive Interference: new info can disrupt old o Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal at 37 learning o Research on tumours, brain scars   hard to recall old info o Started to map brain while treating epilepsy  Ex. Hard to rmbr old phone # after moving o Could summon a patient’s past experiences by shocking the temporal lobe Source Amnesia o Could make a person hear music  Amnesia: Memory loss, often due to brain damage or o Made one woman smell burnt toast disease, but not always o Regular amnesia generally refers to catastrophic Damage to the Cortex (permanent) memory loss  Agnosia: disruption in the ability to process a particular o Source Amnesia: incorrectly attributing a recalled kind of semantic info fact or event to the wrong source o The sufferer cannot identify familiar objects using  Ex. Watch movie about tsunami  later think the affected sensory modalities we saw it on the news o Will cause difficulty in areas of object recognition,  This is more subtle, not so detrimental (ex. processing of verbal info, or deciphering tactile Someone else can remind you that tsunami info was a movie) o Results from loss of semantic knowledge linking  We typically all experience it from time to time the perception of an object (thru the senses) w its  Can occur in anyone but becomes more identity (name or fn) common among older indivs   Specific type of Source Amnesia: o Cryptomnesia: when a person mistakenly thinks that Types of Agnosia his current thoughts are novel or original  Associative Visual Agnosia: leads to difficulty in  Can lead to inadvertent plagiarism recognizing & naming objects, even tho the indiv can “see”  Ex: George Harrison 1970 (My Sweet Lord) vs. the object The Chiffons 1963 (He’s so Fine) o What’s this? Don’t know  Source Amnesia and Cryptomnesia involve good o Can you draw it? Yes memories that have “gone bad’, become confused  Auditory Agnosia for Speech: indivs can hear verbal sounds (words) & echo them, but are unable to understand False Memory the meaning of the spoken word  False Memories: memories for events that never actually o This is a pen.  blank look happened o Can you read the word pen? Then can understand it’s  Elizabeth Loftus: a pen  Tactile Agnosia: indivs may be able to recognize an object o Had Chris & families (lend credibility) come in, got by sight or description, but cannot recognize the object by family to give them some details in a journal feeling it w their hands o Added “being lost in a shopping mall at age 5” to the journal  Chris read Locations of Damage for Agnosia  Ppl will start to think about it, then elaborate; might confuse w other memories o  says he rmbrs crying, the man & colour of shirt, stores, mother telling him to never leave her again o Debriefing procedure: told him the memory was false – initially have hard time believing this  IQ went up since stopped having seizures so could store more info The Hippocampal Region & Memory in Nonhuman Animals  Hippocampal lesions produce poor spatial memory  Radial arm maze task (Cassel et al., 1998): o Efficient completion requires rat rmbr where it has been (to get food) o Normal rats complete task efficiently: enter each  Visual agnosia: damage to inferior temporal lobe arm only once o Rats w hippocampal lesions make many errors  Auditory agnosia: damage to superior temporal lobe  Tactile agnosia: damage to parietal lobe  Couldn’t rmbr where had already gone to collect food Bizarre Agnosias o Argument against Tulving (he says animals can’t rmbr episodic memory)  Sometimes indivs have “bizarre” agnosias o Ex: One male subject was found to have a certain visual agnosia that left him unable to name living things & foods, though he could successfully name inanimate objects.  Can say “this is a pen” but not “this is a person”  Prospagnosia: inability to recognize faces o Involves temporal & parietal lobe damage o Their problems are not typically limited to only facial recognition deficits o Ex: Man who mistook his wife for a hat – hat associated w being on top of head The Hippocampal Region & Memory  Bizarre agnosias suggest specific categories of semantic knowledge or memory are stored in particular &  Disruption to spatial & temporal memory also occurs unique areas of the brain in humans w hippocampal lesions such as H.M. o The result is that a cortical lesion might destroy o Ex: indivs w such damage will have difficulty knowledge for certain objects but not other learning layout of a new home, or a new route that they must follow to arrive at a particular destination closely related objects  Might store similar info close by o Can’t describe the route, but can get better at moving o However, this theory is not completely certain to be thru route w practice the correct reason Hippocampal-Cortical Interaction in Memory Consolidation The Medial Temporal Lobes & Memory Storage  Retrograde Amnesia: loss of episodic memories dating  Medial Temporal Lobe: brain regions in each hemisphere from before a brain injury or disruption that include the hippocampus, amygdala & other areas o Memory loss usually occurs in a time-graded manner, so more recent memories are devastated, important for memory  Patient H.M.: medial temporal lobes removed to but very old ones may be spared prevent seizures  Ribot gradient: Pattern of memory loss for newer memories o An experimental surgery to disappear while earlier ones stay intact o Newer memories are more prone to disruption than o Medically, surgery was success  seizures drastically reduced are older ones o Terrible cost: surgery caused anterograde amnesia  Bilateral hippocampal damage  some retrograde o Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new amnesia, along w the normal anterograde amnesia episodic & semantic memories, although older o Ex. H.M. memories may be preserved largely intact o Lived to age 82 Memory Consolidation: How Long Until a Memory is “Safe”?   could not rmbr learning new info, but skill testing  When is a memory more likely to survive brain damage? demonstrated that somewhere in the brain he stored  Standard Consolidation theory: the hippocampus & st memories about new info associated medial temporal lobe structures are at 1 o Dr. Brenda Milner: he was always very willing to required for episodic memory storage & retrieval participate, was friendly o w time, as the contribution of hippocampus &  Mirror drawing task: never recalled having associated medial temporal lobe structures diminishes, the cortex is able to retrieve the memory learned the task, but w practice, his performance improved w/o the hippocampus o If damage occurs prior to this point, amnesia is o Patients w the disease tend to confabulate, likely making up stories instead of just admitting  In other cases of amnesia however, memory loss extends memory loss back as far as into childhood o To account for such extreme cases of retrograde Clinical Perspectives amnesia, the Multiple Memory Trace theory h
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