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PSY260H1S Lecture 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Daniela Bellicoso

PSY260H1S L2; Jan 15, 13 Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory Working Memory & Executive Control: Ch. 5  Test: Prob Ch 1-6  Short answers Qs: Be descriptive! Transient Memories  Transient Memories: nonpermanent memories that last for seconds or minutes, and include both sensory memory and short term memory  2 types: o Sensory memories o Short-term memories  So new info must stop first in STM before it’s tranfered to LTM  Info in STM must be remained thru rehearsal but does not say Transient Memories: Sensory Memory if it is passive or active rehearsal  Sensory Memory: brief transient sensations of what has just  Adequately maintaining memory in STM is key too transfer to been perceived when someone sees, hears, or tastes something LTM  Visual Sensory Memory: the visual system’s temporary  Psychologists suggested the brain had 3 distinct memory storage site for information perceived visually stores: o Iconic (Sensory) memory Transient Memories: Sensory Memory (Spearling Task) o Short-term Memory (STM) o Long-term Memory (LTM)   This interaction model for STM and LTM suggested incoming info passes thru a sensory-based iconic memory store to STM  New info stops in STM before moving to LTM Transferring Information from ShortTerm Memory to Long-Term Memory  Depth of Processing: suggests that deeper processing of incoming info leads to better retention & retrieval than shallower processing o - Fergus Crank, Endel Tulving  Asked to recall grid: not much  DoP suggests that meaningful processing of info as opposed to  Ask to recall a line: ~75% passive rehearsal leads to greater chances of recall from LTM  Used our Iconic Memory in future o Passive rehearsal might be beneficial for Transient Memories: Sensory Memory maintaining info in STM  Iconic Memory: rapidly decaying visual sensory memories that o Active rehearsal or Deeper processing is more beneficial for transferring info to LTM last for less than a second but are critical for recognizing and processing information that is presented only briefly  Expts proving the importance of depth of processing refute o It is necessary for recognizing and processing the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory that suggests we briefly presented information only need passive rehearsal in order for info to shift from o Iconic memory exists for other sensory modalities, STM to LTM including touch, smell and hearing  Each of these sensory iconic memories (…tactile, olfactory, Working Memory visual, etc) acts like a buffer for information  Working Memory: involves actively maintaining & manipulating STM Transient Memories: Short Term Memory o = when we use STM as a buffer or temporary holding station  Short Term Memory: info that is encoded & can be immediately recalled – usually 7 ±2 items o Relatively little cognitive capacity o A temporary memory maintained through active  We can recode info that must go into working memory in rehearsal order to expand the capacity of working memory  Short term memory is limited in capacity o Imagine a set of #s:  Short term memory is also affected by primacy and recency  9854301020 o Primacy Effect: in free recall, the tendency to recall the o Rechunk: 9 8 5 4 30 10 20 first items on a list more readily than items in the middle o This new chunked pattern is easier to recall in working of the list memory o Recency Effect: in free recall, the tendency to recall  Chunking: process of reorganizing or recoding materials or info in memory to allow for a # of items to be packed into a items at the end of the list more readily than those in the middle larger unit  Limited and affected by interruption o Can’t be used if # of units is too large o Typically the lower limits are easier to maintain (5,6,7) When we maintain working memory, this is considered to be than the higher limits (7,8,9) having executive control of working memory  Executive Control: manipulation of working memory through  Internal, unspoken speech used for rehearsal is critical for the updating stored info to facilitate goals, plan, switch tasks, PL & verbal working memory conduct stimulus selection, and carry out response inhibitio If this internal unspoken rehearsal is interrupted or removed, phonological storage does not occur Baddeley’s WorkingMemory Model  This internal rehearsal also applies to maintaining lists of  Alan Baddely proposed the most influential model of words working memory to date o It is easier to rmbr a list of words that each only have a  The model can be maintained and or manipulated few letters (ex: big top wig door) than a list w words w lots of letters (ex: decision, expedition, auditorium precision, university) o Word Length Effect: tendency of a person to remember fewer words from a list as the word length increases  Easier to retain shorter words in working memory Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad  Can be considered a mental workspace for storing & manipulating visual + spatial info  The model consists of 2 independent STM buffers: o Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad: holds/maintains visual & spatial images for later manipulation o Phonological Loop: auditory memory maintained by internal (sub-vocal) speech rehearsal  Key feature of the model: visuo-spatial info & phonological info are stored separately in working memory  Central Executive: monitors & manipulates the 2 working memory buffers  Picture described outloud: then asked, what is below the 7? o Provides executive control of working memory  VSS allows you to take in visual info & rmbr it in working o Executive Control: involved in updating STM buffers, memory and facilitating goal-directed bhvrs and planning, tas The visuo-spatial loop is also time limited switching, and selection and inhibition for stimuli and  Visual memory is the sensory memory of choice for controlled the proceeding responses, respectively laboratory studies using animals to examine working memory  Need in order to achieve the desired outcome  Manipulations of the central executive include:  Common test of visual memory: Delayed nonmatch-to-sample o Adding & deleting items from the VSS and or PL task o Selecting appropriate items to guide bhvr o Delayed Nonmatch-to-Sample Task: visual memory o Retrieving info from LTM test where a subject must indicate which 1 of 2 novel o Transferring info from the STM buffers (VSS/PL) to objects does not match the previously seen object LTM  No spatial info needed The key distinctions of Baddeley’s model are: 1. Distinguishes between 2 general processes of working memory: o Manipulation o Maintenance 2. Indentifies the VSS & PL as being material specific Phonological Loop  Deals w auditory memory & requires unspoken rehearsal  2 seconds of info retention ability w/o rehearsal o Raine et al. (1991)  Rhesus Monkey o Found that in a study of children w slower than avg  A: moves blue disk  finds food rates of speech but normal intelligence, compared to  B: Delay -screen comes down, researcher puts food under 1 of children w normal speech rates, children w slower new disks speech rate had a lower STM capacity o Hope the monkey rmbrs he took the food from under o Rehearsal speed related to verbal STM capacity the blue disk so it should now be under the red disk  Not related to intelligence  C: picks the red disk  gets the new food o The 2s limit, limits how much they can say  He just has to rmbr he saw the sample object o No spatial info needed card, the selected image(s) must still be maintained The Central Executive in memory  VSS & PL (STM buffers) help maintain info in STM  The fns of the central executive all involve manipulations of the info in STM o What makes the central executive the working  Trial 1: pick reward component of working memory in Baddeley’s from container model  Trial 2: shuffle containers, monkey  The central executive is associated w executive control, which facilitates: must rmbr whih o Controlled updating of short-term memory buffers container he already o Setting goals and planning took from o Task switching  Trial 3: like trial 2 o Stimulus selection & response inhibition  A similar version of this  self-ordered task can be used to test the central Controlled Updating of Short-Term Memory Buffers executive’s  To update working memory, the central executive manipulation of receives & evaluates sensory info by working memory in o Moving items into & retrieving them from LTM animals o And deciding which stored memories are required for specific tasks  he similarity of the task for both humans & monkeys allows for neural substrates of working memory to be  The 2-back test is commonly used to study controlled compared btwn the 2 dif types of subjects updating of working memory o Ppl are read random lists w #s Setting Goals and Planning  Asked to watch out for target  Setting goals – important for long-term & short-term  Then asked what # came 2 numbers before  Need to understand goal, store info, maintain & check so that o Successful performance on the 2-back task requires we’re on right track actively maintaining a wide range of items in  One way to test planning & goal setting abilities in the lab working memory is w Tower of Hanoi  Paying attention, being aware of target, o Cognitive skills are very useful for goal setting & maintaining memory of list planning  The N-back task is a version of the 2-back task  To complete the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, it is important to o The larger the N-value, the greater the challenge of the establish sub-goals task  3 key manipulations of working memory required to solve the Tower of Hanoi include: o Recalling which subgoals have been accomplished Michael Pertides et al. o Recalling which subgoals are yet to be achieved  Used self-ordered o Keeping in mind which subgoal needs to be memory tasks to study accomplished next (ie. recalling goal sequence) bhvr’al & neural bases  This info is continuously updated  puts heavy load on of working memory central executive  Show cards w 8 items – in dif locations on each Task Switching  Must pick a dif item on  Task Switching: looks at one’s cognitive flexibility & the speed each card, card by card w which they can move back & forth btwn dif tasks & rules  Trying to keep which o Also known as set-shifting images they’ve selected o Allows a person to switch quickly & efficiently btwn in working memory dif activities  A successful participant o Requires the manipulation of working memory should be able to do this  Must pay attention to task & outside stimuli in just 8 cards  Wisconsin Card Sort Test: procedure for testing working memory where subjects must sort cards in a deck according to a rule that changes from time to time o Key demand on working memory & executive fn of the  Self-ordered tasks where people keep a memory of their task is to keep track of current rule while sorting, & previous responses can also be used to study the central switching task rules when necessary while executive’s manipulation of working memory simultaneously avoiding confusion of new & old  Michael Pertides et al. rules o Participant must actively keep in mind the image they have selected, and must also be aware that even though object location may change card-to- o Had normal intelligence, could speak fine, rmbr-ed ppl o Divorced wife quickly, had shady dealings, another divorce  Intellectual changes are also common such as reduced ability to use language, mathematics & reasoning, decreased ability to maintain focus, and sometimes poor autobiographical recall for one’s own self  Common syndrome in people w severe damage to the frontal lobes is dysexecutive syndrome  Dysexecutive Syndrome: disruption in the ability to think or plan clearly o Specific pattern of abnormalities associated with Stimulus Selection & Response Inhibition damage to the prefrontal cortex  The Stroop task is often used in a laboratory setting to test o Patients often display an inability to contemplate stimulus selection & response inhibition current & recalled events or interpret validity &  Stroop Task: involves looking at a series of colour names each implications of those experiences in order to draw printed in an ink colour that differs from the colour being reasonable conclusions named (ex: red – should say “Purple.”).  Patients w frontal lobe damage commonly display working o Goal: naming the ink colour in which various colour memory & executive fn deficits
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