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Lecture 9

PSY260H1S Lecture 9 (last lecture)
PSY260H1S Lecture 9 (last lecture)

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University of Toronto St. George
Daniela Bellicoso

PSY260H1S L9; April 02, 13 o Ex: “Peepo” … syllable –py followed by –po Language Learning: Ch. 13  Researchers tested ability of participants to recognize  Can have the inputs to learn language, but not enough presented nonsense words in comparison to novel (unpresented) nonsense words not from the seq Bhvr’al Processes  Results indicated both infants & adults able to quickly  It’s possible that one’s ability to imitate might be a key learn to recognize combos of speech sounds that had prerequisite for learning language occurred frequently in a specific order just by listening in o Not in all animals the expt’al sequence o Kids w better imitative abilities develop better  Findings suggests: language skills o Ppl can learn to recognize spoken words w/o even  It appears that most words kids learn are taken in or learned trying o Infants & toddlers can learn words w/o knowing thru the observational learning process  Many of the sentences humans produce have never been their meanings, & w/o paying any attention to the produced before indiv words o Suggest flexibility of language skills  Transitional probs are also important for learning sound What is Language? seqs within musical tunes  Some animals also appear to recognize transitional  Language: system of socially transmitting info, consisting of stimuli that communicate a meaning & that can be put together probabilities to make a sentence o Language is made up of words Hauser et al. (2001)/(2002) o Words consist of at least 1 or more morphemes which are small linguistic units of meanings  Ex. Dog – 1 morpheme; Unlikely – 2 morphemes  Grammar: rules of a language that dictated how words can be altered & combined to form sentences  Use of language requires: o Ability to identify words o Recognize word order (in dif contexts too) o Recognize abstract rules associated w word order (& the flexibility of the rules) o Recognize word categories  These are all key parts to being able to correctly identify & use a language flexibly o Can be used by doctors to see where a problem is  Speech perception requires ability to recognize the correct sounds & appropriate seqs for words o Ability to recognize correct sounds & appropriate seqs is important for communication in many species  Ex. Birds – birdsong acquired similar way as human speech thru imitation o Certain mechanisms underlying speech may not be unique to humans Identifying Words  Word Segmentation: recognizing where one word stops &  Exposed monkeys to nonsensical speech recordings another begins in a continuous stream of speech sounds o Very difficult task since very little silence space btwn Moved to new spot: played new nonsensical words  Found: Monkeys more likely to pay attention to the words speaker playing novel sounds – indicating they’d already  Word identification typically starts in infancy st  Infants can learn to identify words by repeatedly hearing experience the 1 set & could break the sounds down o Shows monkeys can pay attention to Transitional consistent patterns that occur in the order of speech Probs sounds o Both infants & adults are sensitive to these consistent o Not due to speech-learning capacity (can’t speak) patterns of speech sound  Similar to the fetus habituating to sounds o Transitional Probabilities: how often one kind of syllable follows another  Many sentences contain words or seqs of words we are unfamiliar w  Semantics: the meaning or interpretation of words & sentences Saffran et al. (1996)  Expt’al phase: participants (infants & adults) heard  Once a word is recognized, correct interpretation of word continuous syllable seqs, some of which occurred meaning requires semantic knowledge o This helps to know possible meanings, & helps to repeatedly in combos of made-up nonsensical words decide which meaning is appropriate to the context  Ex. “Ball” – could be a toy or a dance variety of sounds, including sounds they have o Can look at sentence as a whole to figure out the never heard meaning of an unknown word o In baby birds, called subsong o A word is not considered to be fully indentified if  Subsong: the sounds baby songbirds produce you don’t know what it means when first learning to sing o A deaf patient can also go thru the babbling stages, but Stages of Language Learning later onset, & dif babbling than normal  We learn language to some extent thru observation, but  Perhaps since less likely to have heard sound also in great part thru experience  Key aspect of language learning is experience  Progression of language development & communication in infants:  3 stage (final) stage o Early stage o Baby birds: produce songs similar to those they  Recognize communication signals, can’t produce were exposed to as babies them  Ex. “Mama”, “Papa” o Birds & humans both need to be able to hear & o Intermediate stage  Communication signals are produced observe their own vocal output, both to achieve haphazardly better reproduction of what they hear, & produce sound seqs similar to those of adults o Later stage  Communication signals are produced that adults  Ability to speak is understood to be a perceptual-motor can interpret skill  Ability to use correctly syntactic structures is a cognitive Baby song birds & infants go thru similar basic stages of language skill learning  Baby birds deaf after the 1 stage  produce abnormal song  1 stage: perceptual learning phase st  Humans deaf after 1 stage  can be taught lip-reading o Involves a sensitive period (ends on avg around age o But doesn’t help to produce clear-sounding words in 12 at puberty) final stage (since can’t hear self & others) o In infants, they improve at recognizing speech  Overall, these 3 stages of language learning suggest that sounds, words, & phases used in their native development of language & vocal communication systems lan
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