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Lecture 2

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Susanne Ferber

Lecture Two Importance of examining Behavior: – properties of behavior can tell us about the difficulty/complexity of a problem → make inferences about how processing may operate – reaction time: the amount of time it takes to process an input and generate a response/output Cognitive Models: – attempt to describe the steps associated with certain features of cognition (ie: memory) – should be clearly specified & realistic + parsimonious (simple as possible) + falsifiable (test whether it's working or not) + linked to our knowledge of the brain Lesion Studies: – Moniz's work led to Freeman's widespread use of frontal lobotomy to “cure” psychotic patients – Discovery of Kluver-Bucy syndrome with damage to bilateral temporal lobe resection (including amygdala) + problems: hyper-sexual; try to copulate with other species. – neurophysiological studies allow the studying of the brain in a way that is not allowed in humans + can map how areas respond to stimulus input or examine how ablation of a specific brain region impairs performance Neuroimaging: – basic (experimental) + normal brain structure, function + effect of experimental manipulation – diagnostic (clinical) + anatomical localization + pathophysiology Examining the Brain: – structural techniques: + CT, sMRI, DTI – functional techniques: + EEG, PET, fMRI – computerized axial tomography (CT) + 3-D image projected on computer screen – structural MRI + uses magnetic field + radio wave is applied to the brain + can see grey and white matter – diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): + mapping of diffusion process of molecules (mainly water) in biological tissues, in vivo, and non-invasively + water molecules used as probe to reveal microscopic details about tissue architecture + person shaked in order to move the water around – electroencephalography (EEG): + records electrical activity along the scalp + measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain + multiple electrodes placed on the scalp – event-related potentials (ERPs): + measures brain response that's the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event + any stereotyped electrophysiological response to a stimulus + time-locked average EEG response + noise filtering and
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