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Lecture 4

6 Pages

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Susanne Ferber

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Lecture 5: 309 – attention is a limited resource + more we pay attention to one thing, the expense of our environment... – overt: paying attention overtly – not just looking at it, but focusing our mind on it as well as look at it. + directing sense organs towards a stimulus source – Covert: looking at someone talking but paying attention to somewhere else. Look at one direction but have the mind focused somewhere else. + neural process that enhances the signal from a particular part of sensory panorama (ie: while reading, shifting overt attention would be amount to movement of eyes to read different words, but covert attention shift would occur when you shift your focus from semantic processing of a word to the font/color of the word you're reading) – Sustained: paying attention for a long period of time. Important for focus, processing information... challenge if trying to pay attention for a very long time. + limitations on how long we can pay attention to ;; tasks get difficult after a prolonged period of time + level of attention that produces consistent results on a task over time + ability to direct and focus cognitive activity on specific stimuli – Transient: shift attention. Keep fresh of environment. Can be taken to extreme – supremely distractable, trouble focusing + when choosing to pay attention to something, paying dodges of attention to it – choose to pay attention (deliberate cognitive process – a choice to pay attention to one thing in deliberate of expenses to others) + the involuntary, stimulus-driven component of spatial attention – Endogenous: overt attention + voluntary attention shift + one choosing of their own volition to direct their attention – exogenous: looking down, attention is triggered... environment has pulled your attention by reflex. + automatic shift of attention + “reflexive attention” + occurs when an external object/event (ie: bee flying by) grabs attention away from the book one is reading, and attracts it regularly – Bottleneck of processing: all these things brought into our world, we can only give further processing to some of it. + the trimming (where some gets the boot, some gets processing) occurs where...? – Dichotic listening task: + investigate selective attention in auditory system + separate streams of input + manipulate the direction of attention + put headphones on a person with two different information going into the head - in left, the speech input is the same as the attended input - in right, no speech input comes out... – Early selection model: + Broadben's filter theory: + when we're choosing to pay attention to something, we choose to pay attention to things based on their physical characteristics … of sound alone + ie: gender of speaker (male/female);; high or low voice + once you choose to pay attention to female voice, you're not paying attention to the male voice … all that information is discarded – gone and unavailable for any further processing + ie: problem: if paying attention to the only right ear, left should be gone but doesn't happen... the first words are prominent, but in the middle, the left ear's information weaves through - no realization – happens quick, automatically + attention shuts down or attenuates processing in the unattended ear before the mind can analyze its semantic content + registration & perceptual analysis + stimulus need not be completely perceptually analyzed before it can be selected for further processing or rejected as irrevelent – Late selection model: + Treisman's attenuation theory: + we can choose to pay attention to certain things – if we choose to not pay attention to one thing, the information doesn't get completely discarded... information is rather dampened: not completely thrown out, but put on hold – it can be recalled upon if necessary when semantically relevant to hearing + explains the “intrusion of unattended inputs” – cocktail party phenomenon + pay attention to one ear more than the other + contents in both ears is analyzed semantically, but the words in the unattended ear cannot access consciousness + semantic encoding/analysis → executive functions... → decisions, memory, etc + attended and ignored inputs are processed equivalently by the perceptual system, reaching a stage of semantic (meaning) encoding and analysis. Thereafter, selection for additional processing and perhaps also representation in awareness can take place – Directing visual attention: – Posner's spatial cueing paradigm: + on a given trial, given an arrow that goes left or the right... a cue for the box to come up + valid trial: the most sensible one where the arrow would be straightforward and show where the cube will come up + invalid trial: a trickster; the arrow is pointing the opposite direction of the cube + neutral trial: no indication of where the cube is going to show up; cue can go in either direction + reaction time fastest when you have a valid cue; slowest when you get invalid cues that points in the wrong direction and when you don't get a hint at all (neutral), you're in the middle + differences in reaction time as a function of location expectancy – benefits (speeding of reaction time) & costs (slowing of reaction time) ;; attributed to the influence of covert attention on the efficiency of information processing. – Neisser and Becklen: + overlapping videos + people pay attention to one movie – good at that. + the more you pay attention to one thing, the less resources you have for other things – Visual search & related processes: + word search... + serial search: going through one line at a time in a crossword. Takes longer to find a letter that's at the bottom of the list than at the top. The more you have to search through, the longer it takes. + parallel processing: search multiple things at once. Scattered letters; find a red letter out of all green ones. - conjunction search: more things to search, longer it takes – sloped. It is defined by the conjunction of two or more stimulus features - attention required together to bind features – Treisman's feature integration theory: + illusory conjunctions. Participants accidentally combine features of two objects into one object. Both visual illusory conjunctions & auditory illusory conjunctions. Both occurs due to a lack of attention. - visual depends on fixation and amount of time allotted to focus on an object - problem with binding + Balint's syndrome result of very serious parietal lobe damage to both hemispheres. Results in huge impairment in attention. Have huge binding problem – make illusory conjunctions all the time. – Language is left lateralized to the brain; right is for attention – Use ERPto study attention + the way occipital lobe is structured... has different parts – corresponds to retinographic mapping. Can measure different areas + used to record activity of sensory system while subjects attended and ignored stimuli – object → preattentive stage (analzye the object) → focused attention stage (combine features) → perception – Voluntary attention influences basic sensory processing: + positive goes down, negative goes up + increased attention in lower-right of occipital lobe – increase in ERP – first ERP component called P1 (positive) and 1 because it's the first really big positive wave + whenever see something visual, you have P1 + reflect some aspects of visual processing – happens whether spacing out/paying attention + when paying attention to a certain stimulus, P1 is bigger ;; capture effects of attention with ERP. Record ERP from back part of the brain, the occipital lobe – N1 (negative) & first major negative component + caused by visual stimulation + affected by attention ;; when looking at something, have a bigger N1 + can be recorded over most part of the brain – more general – waves correspond to changes in behavior – increase in P1 & N1 result in faster response on attention tasks – Neural correlates of attention to complex stimuli: + two parts of brain that like faces and houses – Fusiform FaceArea & Hippocampal place area - can see how attention change processing + task: looking at two faces and houses and job is to pay attention to either faces or houses.
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