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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Susanne Ferber

Lecture 6: 309 – start with thinking of a very simple dichotomy + building and storing knowledge and accessing the stored knowledge – with memory, building information in your brain – permanent representation that you can call upon later. + have to be able to build and add knowledge to this structure – Building and storing knowledge: + must be “sufficiently processed” + must enter an organized LT store + some input goes into long term memory, but a lot of it doesn't. Stuff goes into LTM is the stuff we spent more time on, paid more attention, more effort in. + spend more time putting things into LTM + have a storage/capacity that makes sense of organization – have to be able to put stuff into this long-term memory storage & have to be able to access it – Accessing the knowledge: + must be able to navigate LT store – must be able to store and retrieve it when purpose matters + processing must be flexible – if information is incorrect, must be able to over-write that information – prefrontal regions process pictures and sentences – posterior regions represent concepts – The Modal Model of Memory: + very simple – Sensory Memory: + incoming information + ie: visual information. So much information coming in our way so we have to select a subset amount of information – process that triggers this is attention + whatever we attend to enters our short-term working memory (moment-to-moment consciousness) – the more you work on a piece of information, the more likely it will enter long term memory + when trying to transfer moment-to-moment thinking to LTM, you could be trying to encode these memories (put them into long lasting representation into the brain) – Visual sensory memory (iconic memory): + component of visual memory system which includes visual short term memory and long term memory + memory store where information is represented … how much information is there and how long does it stick around? + what's the capacity, what's the duration? – Sperling: + whole-report technique: flashes letters on the screen in an array very quickly and job is to report as many of the letters as you can. Can memorize 3-5 characters from 12 character display (35%) – limited by a memory system with a capacity of 4-5 items + parital report: identify a subset of characters from the visual display using cued recall - cue was a tone which sounded at various time intervals following the offset of the stimulus - ding! And record the top row and another sound for the bottom role. Record part of the array - they see the entire array, no idea what row … - people are amazing when tested at each row – doesn't matter which row you test, they can capture all of it – findings are different... + playing a sound that cues you to a specific row – the fact that you can report any of the rows equally well suggests you can capture more than you initially thought and require attention in order to report them + can't say all 12 right off the bat + capacity of sensory memory is poor due to the fact that it is difficult to recall upon information after they blinked away – but if you cue per row, people are equally good;; limitation is the attention – partial-report procedure reveals that visual sensory memory is large + the key is the duration – Sensory memory... it's too fast and new information cover up the old one before it can get encoded at times – Occipital lobe activation: + changes as we age – declines + corresponds to sensory impairments for adults + tied to actual brain changes, not the eye resulting in reduced visual acuity + sensory processing is weakened in the occipital lobe – Auditory sensory memory (echoic memory): + what's the capacity and duration? Study with EEG and present the person with a simple sound. Present one sound, couple seconds later, present a second sound. Find an ERP component called mismatch negativity – you've heard two different sounds + see it for the first few seconds, but after numerous of trials, you don't see the difference anymore + for mismatch, compare two things.. at 13 happens... can't compare. Maybe out of memory? Cause by then, it's gone so there's nothing to compare it to. + Memory for duration is 12 seconds. – Temporal lobe activation: + changes as we age – have less activation of it when hearing the same sounds as when younger or adult + linked to subtle processing – Short-Term (STM) or Working Memory (WM): + it can be an active process (not just a storage bin of information) + very active + taking information, using it to make decisions + anything that we pay attention to in our sensory memory may come into the working memory – Quality processing in WM: + Role rehearsal: - more rehearsal, better the memory - repetitive - somehow cements into memory that it'll stay there forever - not the most efficient way to learn - more rehearsal time does not always help + Craik & Lockhart: - levels of processing (LoP) - more efficient way to learn - levels of processing describes the degree in ways we process the information and how we can recall upon it - remember by making a meaning of it - how it relates to you, knowledge + Deeper processing and left PFC: - deeper processing and left PFC activated – this region help integrate new knowledge with what you already know - helps navigate memory banks - motivation makes a huge difference – benefits. – Baddeley's Model of WM: + composed of three main components: the central executive which acts as supervisory system and controls the flow of information from and to its slave systems: phonological loop (verbal) & visuo-spatial sketchpad (viso-spatial) + visuospatial sketchpad: mental imagery. - close your eyes, and visualize something... visual working at play + phonological loop: - internal dialogue – quiet, not talking... talking in your own head/mental space - 10-20 seconds long - word-length effect depends on how long the words it is, the syllables, etc. Limited by space. + central executive: - “the boss” - orders the slave systems - knows what's important, what to pay attention to, what to ignore, and direct these resources accordingly - important for processing – Working memory and PFC: + work with monkeys: - WM: looking for reason, seems to be very integral to many measures of intelligence, the more you could hold in mind rdd work with the better it gets for you - prefrontal cortex: 1/3 of brain that's important for WM. + monkeys sit behind the bars and look at delicious treat hidden behind one of two wells. Then close the monkey's door and later on monkey get to choose between the two options of where the treat is. + WM important during delay – holding the information in mind. Can measure the activity of frontal lobes of monkeys by looking at individual neurons. Neurons may be holding onto the location when the monkey cannot see so when the door comes up, monkey go and grab the treat + cooling PFC: if you put icepack on the region, cooling the neurons down, you depress neural activity and turn off for a little bit = monkeys perform terribly at this task. Constantly forget where the treat is hidden. Profound impairment in WM> + dopamine infusions increase SNR: enhance the WM. Increase the signal on neural and the monkey's accuracy increases. The SNR is signal-to-noise ratio which is what the monkey's trying to remember and if improve that signal, everything else improves. + Functional neuroimaging in humans: - frontal region most active for humans in WM – but there are other brain areas involved. - two different types of tasks: 1. maintenance: maintaining information over a period of time (repeat) – ventral 2. manipulation: take the information and work with it. Activate the lower part of frontal lobes – dorsal + verbal is left side of the brain;; visual is the right side of the brain + task: a set of words were shown to people telling them to remember and forget some. The ones they were told to forget... were forgotten. When told to forget, the frontal lobe activity ramped up and activation in hippocampus was suppressed. Frontal lobes can turn off areas in the brain, essential for memory creation. + if you damage frontal lobes, can affect attention. Can get distractable, difficult to shield out what you don't need. Brain is noisier. The back part of the brain is regularly unregulated. Difficult to tell what's important and what's not. – Power law of learning: + when strengthen memory, it should come more easily to mind + greater memory strength results in that memory coming to mind more easily + strength builds with practice + more days you study for an exam, the better. But at some point, thin
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