– Ultimatum Game
+ emotion comes in the way of making decisions
+ tendency to reject offers that are unfavorable
– The trolley problem
+ the difference between each decision is proximity of the events – the consequences of your
+ when pushing guy over the bridge, engaging in strong emotional response. The thought of
killing someone should make you feel uncomfortable
+ emotions play an important part along with agency of technology
+ Easy to push a button to unleash a bomb – technology
+ Closer we are to the actual person, more difficult it is
– The neural correlates of mortality?
+ emotions tell you not to push someone off the bridge
+ ventral media PFC – really essential to govern moral behavior
- strong emotional reaction to something terrible
- emotions ramp up when we even consider doing that
– Cognitive control of emotion:
+ have the ability to ramp up or down emotions on certain situations
+ have to be able to regulate emotions at times... so we can put a break on the emotions. VmPFC
+ frontal lobes ramp up emotions as well... when feeling sad, etc, listening to sad music... we
make these emotions more intense, worse.
– Phineas Gage's blast injury to PFC:
+ lack of control over his emotions & behavior
– Somatic marker hypothesis:
+Antonio Damasio – Damasio's hypothesis
- things we do good or bad have emotion associated with them. Idea of murdering someone...
emotions associated with them, and under normal case, they're negative emotions. Engages with
bodily systems = makes body feel sweat, feeling uneasy, idk.
- body is consistent with the emotion you're feeling
+ Iowa Gambling task:
- patient comes in... play a game, and one person earns much money as possible by picking out
one of four decks. Two are good, two are bad. Good ones end up making money, bad ones end up
- normal condition participants pick a random deck... don't know what's good or bad.
- good decks result a favorable outcome
- when damage vmPFC, they pick more from bad decks.
- when know a deck is bad, more nervous about picking from a safer deck
- look at skin conducted response... people get more worked up for the risky decks. Get
- in patients, damaging to the region, is eliminating the somatic markers → more risky impulsive
behaviors. Having social troubles.
– Acquired Sociopathy:
+ become sociopaths because of brain injury + get caught up on it... then lament on how much of a bad idea it was later on.
+ people who don't feel bad about what they've done until later on.
+ central medial system
+ the brain area that's least active for sociopaths are vmPFC. Likely to do horrific things because
they don't have bodily signals telling them it's a bad idea
+ vmPFC isn't working as it should be because you have abusive, emotional experience as a kid
and that part didn't fully mature and develop / neurochemical imbalance … ?
+ responsible for logical
+ vmPFC stumped.
– Putting together the various roles of PFC regions:
+ VLPFC: maintenance, item-specific information to given stimulus – retrieve memories about it.
+ DLPFC: manipulation; comparing simple elements
+ RLPFC: relational integration
+ VMPFC: somatic markers, emotional regulation
– Overview of executive functions:
+ the boss of the brain – frontal lobes good candidates
+ doesn't matter how they're damaged, but may see same symptoms on PFC
+ diversity in cognitive functions
+ V4 – impairment in color
+ frontal lobe one part damage cannot lead to the same deficit.Alot of variability.
– Goals and goal-directed behavior:
+ how to represent goals and goal-relevant information by... having goals at various levels.
+ frontal lobes manage goals just the same.
+ how to break goals down into manageable goals
+ having abstract goals are overwhelming – gotta break down goals, take them one step at another
time, takes time. Try to address it
+ prioritization – manage time effectively, a frontal lobe function
+ switching gears when goals change.. when rigid; things have to change and they throw a fit.
Sometimes things change, we have to change in response to that.
+ how to correct errors... and recognize them. We're prone to mistakes. Got to recognize making
mistakes and engage in correct corrections to get into right track – frontal lobe function
– Executive Functions/ cognitive control:
+ executive functions vs cognitive control
+ there's a lot of chunks in PFC that takes control of the brain, making decisions
+ Prefrontal cortex (PFC)
- therdrontal lobe minus the motor areas – the cognitive portion of the frontal lobes
- 1/3 of the cortex
– Goal-directed cognition and executive functions:
+ “must haves” for an executive region:
+ four conditions met, then this region is good candidate for controlling the brain
- 1. source of activity that biases other regions – a boss has to give out good orders to be a good
- 2. maintenance in the face of distractions – representing goals are important, have to be able to
filter out distractions
- 3. housing appropriate representations – needs to receive good input from sensory areas; good informations and good connections needed
- 4. plasticity – switching gears when necessary to pursue your goals
+ PFC is the only area in the brain that satisfies all of the must haves
- help goal hold onto goals and be able to change
+ frontal lobes connected to sensory cortices – other kinds of input; good position to receive
- damage makes people more distractable & results in rigid, inflexible behavior
– The well-developed and connected PFC:
+ PFC is getting bigger and bigger over evolution
+ connection wise, got extended connections
- extensive input coming in and out
+ next to motor areas – can control your behavior
– Frontal lobe damage: stroke, trauma and tumor:
+ stroke... long-term disability, language, cognitive functions, movement. Less obvious. Profound
and severe. Both hemisphere damage.
+ trauma.... certain areas are more vulnerable to damage. VmPFC is most common damage .
+ tumor in vm area that affects cognitive and emotional functions … when brain reaches a certain
point, there's a psychological snap
– Lesioning the frontal lobes with lobotomy:
+ frontal lobotomies
+ “firing the boss” – rest of the brain is free to run wild
– Frontal lobe damage: Herpes simplex virus:
+ may manifest as a cold sore on the face?
+ can receive back into brain, first temporal lobes, then hit the frontal lobes
+ headache, terrible memory problems, loses consciousness, can die
+ when survive, and wake up, having profound memory problem because temporal lobe is
destroyed, have problems controlling emotions
– Frontal lobe damage: Pick's disease:
+ specifically targets frontal lobes, causes degeneration of executive function
+ memory seems fine in early, language is fine, spatial ability is fine,... a complete contrast to
+ executive function terribly impaired
+ abnormally mean, bizarre behavior
+ poor judgment
+ have no idea they have a pr