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Lecture 2

PSY270H1F Lecture 2 (updated)

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

PSY270H1F L2; Sept 19, 2012 Historical Context (continued) Conference of AI & Information Theory, Darthmouth (1956) The Cognitive Approach Could you program a computer to think like a person? Psychology lost its mind Multi-disciplinary & 10wks! WWII & practical considerations o Most conferences these days are 3dys Included considering mental events Simon & Newell presented Logic Theorist Many animal behaviorists recruited for war effort, war makers o Comp simulation needed to understand why particular decisions made (ex. Why o Could use logic to prove math formulas o Later developed Symbol Manipulation Model would pilots miss enemies on radar? Attention, motivation) & how to improve decision-making under stress & pressure SMM exploited elements of specificity coding o So had to start talking about mental events ~ james associationism but now the connections represent o Attention, motivation, decision making, memory cognition Completely ignored the way the brain is actually organized Cognition: Mathematical Psychology o No neuron in brain to represent dog S R association Specificity coding Stimulus sampling theory o Representation of an object corresponding to firing of Estes began his training w Skinner specific neurons Drafted into war during grad studies If a connection was missing, program would have hard time o Guarding prisoners, read math txtbks answering question o Thought can use math to describe mental events that Based on firing of neuron affect bhvr Describes how stimuli & responses become associated Suggested that on each trial, animal/person is only sampling a subset of the stimulus characteristics o Light bulb: bright, yellow, warm, specific location, white base o Explains why learning is a curve Skinner accused Estes of having brain damage from war Connectionist Models Network of connections btwn nodes high level, represented objects Distributed representation pattern of nodes activated Ideas inherently represented in system o So ideas not missing o Similar to how brain actually works Advent of the computer & the information-processing approach still the dominant approach today Gave researchers a metaphor for cognition Particular seq of operation Stored in memory; can be processed in arithmetic unit, then outputed Neurobiology Strongly advocated by D.O. Hebb Bhvr & mental phenomena could be directly related to brain activity neurons that fire together, wire together Brodbent??? use a filter to select some inputs to be detected o Connections btwn neurons formed when neurons & interpreted stored in long-term memory activated simultaneously or near-simultaneously Advent of comp allowed researchers to re-frame QsCognitive Neuroscience 19 century: Nerve net o Early staining techniques produced sort of web o Interpreted as: Continuous connections, highway-like Nerves all interconnected Camillo Golgi o Golgi stain: thin slices in silver nitrate o Stained only some neurons, detail was visible Still dont know why/how Can observe structure Ramon y Cajal o Used the Golgi stain to describe the structure of neurons o Neuron doctrine neurons not continuous, discrete units in the brain, transmit info thru nervous system o Used golgi stains to draw out neurons Ex.. Purkinje cells Neurons & Neuron Communication Microelectrodes: very tiny glass tubes filled w soln that can The Neuron Cell body/soma regulate metabolic activity & integrate conduct electricity inputs o Can insert into axon measure changes in electrical signal get reference Dendrites collect inputs Axon/nerve fibre carries output o Result: charge on inside vs. outside o Info typically runs in one direction o An do in vivo or in vitro o Have 1 inside, 1 outside; dif = charge Terminal buttons/ axon terminals o Inside (-) voltage quickly becomes (+) Most neurons at rest (not firing) at -70mV (inside) Receptors: specialized neurons that pick up info from the Inside of cell gets slightly more positive, if enough to reach envvt (skin, ears, recs) stimulus threshold
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