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Lecture 7

PSY270H1F Lecture 7

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Kristie Dukewich

PSY270H1F L7, Oct 31, 2012 Can close eyes No fixation in vision, no correlate in audition o Audition: cognitive Feature Integration Theory Ch. 4: Attention Selective attention o Dichotic listening o Inattention & change blindness o Feature integration theory o Divided attention: driving & cell phone use Orienting: endo/exo + over/covert o Eye-movements o Spatial cueing Neuroscience of Attention o Physiology o hemineglect Visual search finding a target among distracters Found quickly Video: Count # of passes from ppl in white gorilla passes by; person in black leaves, curtain changes from red to gold Constantly bombarded by more info than we can process Attention = gatekeeper; interacts w & changes perception Sometimes attention is a choice powerful Attention dichotomy: Resource, Process Attention as a Resource Attention: mental fuel, like a commodity, can allocate resources to some things & not others o The mental energy or resource that powers the mental system o Limited! Attention as a Process Visual search finding a target among distracters More variability so found a bit slower Attention: the mental process of concentrating effort on a stimulus or mental event What does it tell us about attention in general? Application of mental effort Visual Search A lot of overlap in research btwn Executive Control & Attention Might simultaneously by using memory Dalmation in middle of pic Selective Attention Selective attention: controls awareness of, readiness to Sometimes the target is not present respond to Reaction Times (RTs): twice as slow in target-absent condition o Either a category of stimuli, or location as in target-present condition Filtering or selecting: focusing on 1 stimulus/event at the o Why? When a target is present on avg only need to expense of others search of the display. In target-absent trials, must o Vision: achieved overtly search thru whole display before saying it isnt there. Feature search display: target dif from distracters by 1 featre So baggage handlers & pathologists: more likely to miss o Ex. Colour targets, less likely to make false alarms o Doesnt matter whether target present or absent RTs Prevalence sets up predictions for us: Participants go into the same each trial suspecting theres no target o Doesnt matter how many items in display Wolfe at airport in Boston, also recruited pathologists to be in o Target so obviously present or absent expt: using this effect by changing ppls predictions o Dont need attention to search Parallel o If you can slip in a few examples of trials where you Conjunction search display: target dif from distracters on 2 or know a target is present, can change their expectations more features o Have ppl come into shift, play tetris for half an hour o 2 features must be conjoined to determine the target (control) or look at screened baggage (exptal condition) from the distracters that has been preselected to have a high rated of targets o Ex. Blue & square for target among blue triangles & see if it helps them find targets orange squares o Ratio 2:1 Dichotic Listening Task o Need attention to search Serial 2 tasks or msgs presented, 1 task captures attention almost completely Feature Integration Theory Attentional capacity used up Vary the other msgs & observe the effect o See if it makes selection easier or harder Proposed by Anne Treisman Features are perceived pre-attentively features analyzed independently o Parallel search > slopes close to 0 Dont need to employ attention to distinguish feature o Serial search > 2:1 slope ratio Need to deploy attention to combine features into target
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