Class Notes (836,067)
Canada (509,611)
Psychology (3,518)
PSY280H1 (49)
saverino (4)
Lecture

PSY280 JULY 26.docx

11 Pages
65 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY280H1
Professor
saverino
Semester
Summer

Description
PSY280 JULY 26, 2012 THE EAR Perceived through the ear Video of ind 29 deaf all of life, and got cochlear implant And her rxn – If lose vision or hearing which one, Physical stim is soundwaves Structures of the ear to perceive sound Per process - Similar to vision 3 steps - Stim is sound eaves popageated through space in a medium - In photore done in inner hair cells - Hearing get sent to area that process auditory stimulation - Localaixtion and identification allow for interaction Sound - Some medium allows vibrations to pass - Outerspace is a vacuum no sound - Changes in mechanical pressure - Flick string air compress forward increase air pressure and as comes back rarificaion sucks it back tihtly then refraction and then compress - Compression increase in pressure and rar is decrease relative to pressure Sound wave - Single sound pure tone not that many in env are artificial - Compression and rare, compression is peak and rare is trough - Difference in peak is wv - One cycle is maximum pressure back to min to max - Max min then max Contd - 4 dimensions - Same as visial wv Contd - Number per second - High freq then pitch - Within one second more - Hear 2- to 20000 hz - Hertz is unit of freq - 1 hert is one cycle per second Amo - Loudness - Size of pressure change - Greater compression high ampl - In decibels, one tenth of bel of Alexander grand bell bc investigated sound wave, - Min .0002 and 280, change per area Pressure - Convert to decibels - Use log scale - P is sound pressure or ampl - 50/ refrence pressure, pressure of air at baseline no wave propagating through it - Not increase not 1 to 1 - Db increase less then air pressure - Slower rate of increase Sound wave - Phase is comp and rar whether at peak or dip - Phase as degrees - At zero up peak is 90 then base is 180 half circle - Length of 180 varies across different sound sources Contd - Can be added to make different sound - Pure tones good but not in environment - Complex sounds add pure tones - Similar phase, same peaks as other swave both at 180 then addition - Amp is added - Overlap add together 20 and 20 is 40 decibels - Out of phase full 180 peaks when other dips - Increase and dec subtract out flat line - Different waves parts overlap and not one top 2 bottom some added and some subtracted Harmonics - Everyday sounds more complex - Many harmonics - Harmonics - Each harmonic one frequency - Each would be multiple of 200 hertz – second 400 and third 600 - Complex sounds - 4 harmonics get four peaks or repetition beat of 4 then start over - Harmonic stays the same - Related to pitch Contd - Remove one harmonic - Fund the first one, 4 beats and repea - No pitch difference bc every 200 hertz - Difference in timbre quality of sound - Same tone same frequwncy same pitch but different instrument - Sounds the same peaks and dips different quality of sound same tone dif in quality Loundness - High amp more and low amp less intense - Freq is pitch – Perc - Amp loudness depends on frequency - Freq 1000 to 5000 leas amount of intensity, is speech perception - So most atune to it - Higher and lower more intensity to perciee it - Black is lines detect difference – 1000 hertz at 30 to and compare what would be detected same degree - To loud in sound 120 dc not matter frequency levels off, freq not much of impact lower freq matters - Beneath inaudible Contd - Freq influence loud but also duration - 10 db for 10 sec and 5 db for 20 sec - Longer perceived as louder - Underneath 200 ms average it - 100 to 200 summation acroos time - Beyond perceive what it is - Hughs law – to detect sound high press short - Or low pressure long time Cont - Dependent of frrq - So add sw same phase get louder - One left to right and converge it sound louder - More 200 ms wot sum Pitch - Pitch varies with ampl - 1000 and 5000 no difference in pitch - High freq increase int so does pitch - Greater loudness higher pitch for high freq - Under 1000 loudness rises gets decrease in pitch Timbre - Quality of sound clarinet and violin same note same intensnity sampl amp and frequwency same harmonic dif quality bc number of harmonics - Clarinet more rep then violin diff harmonic is difference in sound Contd - Also attack related how quickly sound reaches peak amplitude - Decay how quckly after peak to baseline - Guitar slow attack then cymbal - Decay is different much quicker cymbal then quitar The ear - Primary sensory organ - Outer inner middle - Pinnae surface looking at ear not function but bring in sound wave amplify is greater in canal least important mos t visibke - Canal circular structure tube 3 cm length - Length amplification of cell and sent to ear - Best ampl is 1000 to 5000 freq to speech - Canal wax – wax is protective structure for integrity of inner ear - Hit pinnae into canal then down to ear drum - Drum sep in and out - Drum maintain temp with middle and inner constant bc effect perception of sound Outer to inner - Middle - Ossciles bones tiniest three - Important fuicntion - Malleus behind membrane part of ear drum - To canal against membrane it vibrates cause vibration of bones - Malleus the hammer - Incus anvil - Stapes stirrup - Project to oval window where vibrations from middle to inner - Air for first two inner is liquid - Oscciles amplify bc density changes and increase more amplication - Amp of sound by 10 to 50 db by a factor of Contd - Cochlea - 3 com - Tymp partition and vestib - In coil - Coch is 35 mm long Contd - Unravel it , point of base stapes to end - Apex at the end - Vest top - Tym bottom - Separation is partition - Base to stapes to oval window to apex - Apex furtherst from middle and base closest Corti - Ontop of partition - Corti organ - One above and below - Tect membrane above and olter right on partition - And between have air cells - Inner for transduction - And other for amplification of sound acroos basular mameba - Within hair one protruding called cilia - Stapes to cohcela vibration of partition - Up and down of partition so does basilar membrane up and down so does tecto membrane - Hair cells front and back - Vibration reason is Contd - How hair cells allow for transduction of sound waves - Occurs through same mech other recpetos - Depolar - As tectorial moves for and back shearing of cilia - Shearing opens up channels one direction channels open and other chanel close - In k movie in dep and open calcium channels calcium in the cell causes nt to be released in synapse as nt released to synapse - In synaptic area dendrites of auduitory cell – spiral ganglion nuroins - Hair cells project ot spiral ganglion cells take up nts and produce electrical sign
More Less

Related notes for PSY280H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit