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PSY280 JULY 26.docx

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PSY280 JULY 26, 2012 THE EAR Perceived through the ear Video of ind 29 deaf all of life, and got cochlear implant And her rxn – If lose vision or hearing which one, Physical stim is soundwaves Structures of the ear to perceive sound Per process - Similar to vision 3 steps - Stim is sound eaves popageated through space in a medium - In photore done in inner hair cells - Hearing get sent to area that process auditory stimulation - Localaixtion and identification allow for interaction Sound - Some medium allows vibrations to pass - Outerspace is a vacuum no sound - Changes in mechanical pressure - Flick string air compress forward increase air pressure and as comes back rarificaion sucks it back tihtly then refraction and then compress - Compression increase in pressure and rar is decrease relative to pressure Sound wave - Single sound pure tone not that many in env are artificial - Compression and rare, compression is peak and rare is trough - Difference in peak is wv - One cycle is maximum pressure back to min to max - Max min then max Contd - 4 dimensions - Same as visial wv Contd - Number per second - High freq then pitch - Within one second more - Hear 2- to 20000 hz - Hertz is unit of freq - 1 hert is one cycle per second Amo - Loudness - Size of pressure change - Greater compression high ampl - In decibels, one tenth of bel of Alexander grand bell bc investigated sound wave, - Min .0002 and 280, change per area Pressure - Convert to decibels - Use log scale - P is sound pressure or ampl - 50/ refrence pressure, pressure of air at baseline no wave propagating through it - Not increase not 1 to 1 - Db increase less then air pressure - Slower rate of increase Sound wave - Phase is comp and rar whether at peak or dip - Phase as degrees - At zero up peak is 90 then base is 180 half circle - Length of 180 varies across different sound sources Contd - Can be added to make different sound - Pure tones good but not in environment - Complex sounds add pure tones - Similar phase, same peaks as other swave both at 180 then addition - Amp is added - Overlap add together 20 and 20 is 40 decibels - Out of phase full 180 peaks when other dips - Increase and dec subtract out flat line - Different waves parts overlap and not one top 2 bottom some added and some subtracted Harmonics - Everyday sounds more complex - Many harmonics - Harmonics - Each harmonic one frequency - Each would be multiple of 200 hertz – second 400 and third 600 - Complex sounds - 4 harmonics get four peaks or repetition beat of 4 then start over - Harmonic stays the same - Related to pitch Contd - Remove one harmonic - Fund the first one, 4 beats and repea - No pitch difference bc every 200 hertz - Difference in timbre quality of sound - Same tone same frequwncy same pitch but different instrument - Sounds the same peaks and dips different quality of sound same tone dif in quality Loundness - High amp more and low amp less intense - Freq is pitch – Perc - Amp loudness depends on frequency - Freq 1000 to 5000 leas amount of intensity, is speech perception - So most atune to it - Higher and lower more intensity to perciee it - Black is lines detect difference – 1000 hertz at 30 to and compare what would be detected same degree - To loud in sound 120 dc not matter frequency levels off, freq not much of impact lower freq matters - Beneath inaudible Contd - Freq influence loud but also duration - 10 db for 10 sec and 5 db for 20 sec - Longer perceived as louder - Underneath 200 ms average it - 100 to 200 summation acroos time - Beyond perceive what it is - Hughs law – to detect sound high press short - Or low pressure long time Cont - Dependent of frrq - So add sw same phase get louder - One left to right and converge it sound louder - More 200 ms wot sum Pitch - Pitch varies with ampl - 1000 and 5000 no difference in pitch - High freq increase int so does pitch - Greater loudness higher pitch for high freq - Under 1000 loudness rises gets decrease in pitch Timbre - Quality of sound clarinet and violin same note same intensnity sampl amp and frequwency same harmonic dif quality bc number of harmonics - Clarinet more rep then violin diff harmonic is difference in sound Contd - Also attack related how quickly sound reaches peak amplitude - Decay how quckly after peak to baseline - Guitar slow attack then cymbal - Decay is different much quicker cymbal then quitar The ear - Primary sensory organ - Outer inner middle - Pinnae surface looking at ear not function but bring in sound wave amplify is greater in canal least important mos t visibke - Canal circular structure tube 3 cm length - Length amplification of cell and sent to ear - Best ampl is 1000 to 5000 freq to speech - Canal wax – wax is protective structure for integrity of inner ear - Hit pinnae into canal then down to ear drum - Drum sep in and out - Drum maintain temp with middle and inner constant bc effect perception of sound Outer to inner - Middle - Ossciles bones tiniest three - Important fuicntion - Malleus behind membrane part of ear drum - To canal against membrane it vibrates cause vibration of bones - Malleus the hammer - Incus anvil - Stapes stirrup - Project to oval window where vibrations from middle to inner - Air for first two inner is liquid - Oscciles amplify bc density changes and increase more amplication - Amp of sound by 10 to 50 db by a factor of Contd - Cochlea - 3 com - Tymp partition and vestib - In coil - Coch is 35 mm long Contd - Unravel it , point of base stapes to end - Apex at the end - Vest top - Tym bottom - Separation is partition - Base to stapes to oval window to apex - Apex furtherst from middle and base closest Corti - Ontop of partition - Corti organ - One above and below - Tect membrane above and olter right on partition - And between have air cells - Inner for transduction - And other for amplification of sound acroos basular mameba - Within hair one protruding called cilia - Stapes to cohcela vibration of partition - Up and down of partition so does basilar membrane up and down so does tecto membrane - Hair cells front and back - Vibration reason is Contd - How hair cells allow for transduction of sound waves - Occurs through same mech other recpetos - Depolar - As tectorial moves for and back shearing of cilia - Shearing opens up channels one direction channels open and other chanel close - In k movie in dep and open calcium channels calcium in the cell causes nt to be released in synapse as nt released to synapse - In synaptic area dendrites of auduitory cell – spiral ganglion nuroins - Hair cells project ot spiral ganglion cells take up nts and produce electrical sign
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