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PSY280 JULY 10.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY280H1
Professor
saverino
Semester
Summer

Description
PSY280 JULY 10, 2012 Idenetify the properties of light Anatomical prop of the eye How eye convert light energy into electrical energy Is it indirect – way we see light is exactly reciprocal – vision is indirect Percept process - One electicity stim - Next elect - Thrird exerpience and action - Any sensory perception, what is encoded is different - Vision stimulus is light – light that is reflected off objects not direct llight - Electricity – how light converted into neural signal use rod and cones - Experience and action – as ganglia exit and into brain and experience an action - Create rep of image and respond to it Elec mag spectrum - All energy that can be given off or absorbed by particles - Short wave to long gamma to radio/tv waves - What visual system can process is very small fragment of – 400 and 700 nm, - Wach wavelength rep in brain as colours, short ev blue, med green and yellow, long is red - Brain interpret wavelength as colour – this is indirect not see colour interpret it from different wavelength - Way 400 – 700 light from sun and falls to earth fall in to this band - Uv get absorbed ozone and radio beed medium to travel in What is light - Light - Differ – duel theory of light – prop in two way - Wave length – how light travels it travels as waves – waves from sun - Particle light – amount of energy releaseaed - energy is considered particles and interacts with other - Photon is smallest unit of light - Light packs or photons Contd - Wavelength as wave or photon - Wve peak from peak - Short sv short distance from peaks - Pphotons – energy released from atoms to produce light - Jump to higher electrons – go down release energy and energy released in form of photon Wv and photon - Mus t be rlelaltard - More energy it has shoetrer ewavelenght - Blue more wv larger energy and red less energy - E = hc / wqvelength inverse relationships - Smaller energy is longer eavelenght - Blue wv length blue more energy then red wavelength Light properties - Light perceive reflected off objects - Dif ways light bounced off - Opaque mirroe or wood block or table – light cannot transmit through hit and bounced off or absorbed – in sun becomes hot – light becomes heat - Bc transmitted – goes through travels through medium glass water or air – smooth like glass transmitted same way it came in – however jagged and curved light then transmitted and refracted bend or switvch direction Ref - In transparent surfaces - Bending of light from one medium to another - Lenese dif refraction - Concave inward diverges out relative to optic axis – imaginary line connects - Concave divergence out optic axis and conves outward and light converges in middle - Loacation different levels of refraction Contd - Object distance ffect image distance - Straight lines optical infinity directly into paraleld - Move closer andgle of light switches not optic infinity object image - moves further away contd - same point in eye change curvature of lens – further away flatter – bring closer to lens increase curvature – object still falls same distance bc refractory power larger more convergence and smaller image distance – controls where on retina the eye - outside in - crnea – located on top of iris and pupil – size of contact lens – clear to be transparent – no blood vessels but nerve ending for tears to help regeneration of fibers – scratch fine within 24hrs - behind cornea aqueous humor – liquid stems from blod nutrients and extract waste from cornea - underneath aqauaue humor – iris and pupil – iris is muscle and space has hole and hole is pupil black area – pupil allow light in control amount of light into eye - iris is coloured bc pigmented and everyones is different bc milininn and everyone with diff con and sustansia nigra is coloured - inside is lens clear and controlled by cillary bodies muscles flatten or curve it - behin lens is virtus humor all area retina is made of blood nutrients and extracts waste from eye – consistency of egg white - after have retina or fovia – thin band of neurons photo recpeotors and one spot back of fovea best viusla acuity – clearness - back of eye blindspot – all axons of ganglia cell exit and form optic nerve - then sclera – same substance dura mater meade up in brain – eye is mini brain - nutrients brought in between retina and epthimela brings in nutrients below coroid vein dilation - bright light pupil small so much not over load retina constricts less light - large dilate more light in – doctors dilate to better look eye optic prop - cornea 80 percent refractive rest is by lens - both are curved structure allow light into high - cornea is fixed - curvature is by lens – called accomdation – changes curvature to focus images on retina – related greater refraction from air to cornea and to lens acco - far away lens thin and long by cilary bodies – they relax and ligmanets tighten and cuases lens thin and more flat - closer – cilary muscles constrict cuase lig to be lose and push lens fatter and shorter - differences in pupil – distant more like enlarge pupil - close constrict pupil contd - near and far point - near point only as much as can before focus - in focus is 20 cm closer is blurry is blurry – max accom for object near - far point – max lens can flatten anything past is blurry - near bulge and far flat lens problems - myopia good near sight problem far – reason eyeball to short or lens to bulge or cornea to big not far on retina but infront falls short - muscles not working always relaxed - how correct – use negative lens – concave lens – diverges light away from object axis falls short so converge later on, amount divergence is perspricebd by test very little or a lot contd - hyper far away not close - eyeball to short – cornea or lens to flat or too thin falls behind retina – close is blury – cprrect is positive lense – convex lens – increases what lens would do, so elongate it – older have positive and younger is myopia contd - presbyopia – sim to hyper dif casue - near objects blurry – lens diff to accomadate hardens as ones ages – lens is hard – doesn’t bulge stays thin lasik - cant corrct for prespyobia bc related to lens other types is eyeball - lasik reform cornea - myopia to flatten it shorten eye lenft - hyper lengthen it thicken make it longer - astigmatism no tsmooth bumps or off spherical improve by lasik smooth it out surgey video - bupa animation - myopia too curved clse clear falls short - hyperopia cornea to flat beyond retina and bluured for near and far, from edge then center opp for other more center - astigmatism uneven – local anesthistic applied drops or injection – frame prevents blinking and make flap and laser shape cornea – seals within minuted and eye drops prevent infection cataracts - lens becomes opaque – lens needs to be clear - abnormal build up of molecules and gets rusted - bluured vision across visual field - casue numerous – aging, tramau, heredity congential cataracts, light not get into eye identify have to get surgey bc visual paths in brain tuned early on to visual input – no access visual info to eye and brain may become blind rest of life and metabolic disorders - surgey – to have lens replaces like lasik cut eye and replace lens with arti ficial one made of plastic rephrase - refractive surfaces – lens for all same refractive power closer in converge further away, change angle change asngel, lens shape is refrtartive power - near point and far point – near is closest without blurry, and far is farest without blurry closer or further is blury the retina - main - retina is band of neurons or cells - awakarlfy contrcuted - photo receptios located at deepest layer, pass through all layer of retina to phot receptor, reason is bc all layers is clear, behind phot is epithemal layer – pigmented not clear and absorb light – so light not bouncing off and interferes, not captured by photo receptors coapture by pigmented pauqe epithemial layer phot - rodes and cones bc shape - cones conical shape and pointed - rode more spherical and elongated - dualplex bc to types to photo repect - some only rodes night vison rats - and cones bc day and color vsion lzards - humans 2 duplex - converted light energy to neural signal - and done in outer layer or photo receprts and base od retina or furtehs part trans - how convert - other seg disks and thousands of visual pigment and contain oxin protein and molecule reninal - photon in, pigment capture and rentinal stick up and separate from oxcin and break down and called isomeration, absorb photon and retinal spe from pxin and
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