Class Notes (839,327)
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Psychology (3,528)
PSY290H1 (34)


12 Pages

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Junchul Kim

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PSY290 January 15, 2012 Behavior – overt action, emotion and many other things. Anything thing induce change or nerve system variability lead to changes in behavior All made of protein, sequence of amino a determined by dna sequenceing infor to rna trnalstaed to info Info dna lead to varibilty in behavior Genetic variability introduce behavior variability and physical variability lead to evo. Advantatge over others due to varibailty can produce more offspring Figures in lectures not in book Long time ago used latin not think English take over language of science Today - Nerve system is delicate evo did its best to protect senseitve system dedicative structures to protest it - Cellular building blocks - And gross anatomy of different brain structures nerve systems at different levels - Understanding of anatomony of nerve system Complexity of the brain - Network of neurons and other supporting cells - And 1000 syn per neuron different area different synapse - Showcase complexity of nerve system - How system made of neurons organize into brain Cns - Divided into two main subdivisions - Cns and pns - Cns one inside the skull and spine - Two structure protected by thick bone skul and spine - Pns is outside of thick bone - Pns collect infor from environment for our body - And bring information to cns for further information processing to have appopiate behavior or physio responses - Pns project from spinal cord - Nerves in pns project from brain small region of brain project several peripheral nerve tracts - Cns skull and pns outside and mainly composed of tracts from spinal cord and some from brain - Key words Def - Nerve axons outside the cns in cns called tracts both bundle of axons - Afferent or efferent depending on direction of information flow - Neurons found as cluster and cluster in cns is called nuclei - Cluster outside cns in pns then ganglia both refer to group of neurons Layout - Pns two more subdivisions - Nerve system is system of two - What distinguish som and auto Somatic - Interact with body external environment - Any sensory stimuli arriving surface of body sensed by somatic nervous stimuli - Stimuli at muscle is carried by somatic - Somatic used to interact with external env - Once sensory information collected by somatic carried to brain and info processing - And cns generate motor signal Automatic - Interact body internal not external enviorment - Internal organs - Collects sensory signals from internal organ and send it back to brain and our brain generate motor signal to control onternal movement heart lung etc - Nerve tract carries sensory information into brain called afferent efferent leave the brain - Efferent motor nerve in auto is 2 systems symp and other is para - And two divided where cell bodies are located in spinal cord Human spine - Arrangement of vertebrae - 33 bones - Sacrum hip region - Tailbone have the coccyz - Project different postion along spine Symp - From lumbar and thoraci so middle - Control movment of internal organs - Sym motor nerves control involunarty movement of interna organ - Prepare body for action response fight or flight - Breating by relax airway and see more more visual signal gain more info as possible need to tnderstand what is going on in enviroemnt - Digestion need a lot of blood Para - Instead of generating arousal promotes vegetative non em response - Decrease breathing - Constricsts airways - Functionally have opposing role - Different position of spine from upper and lower spine - And brain stem Anatomy - All receive infor from both symp and para one system promote increase in movement another promote decrease tug of war per se Gernal layout - Somatic from outside and gern muscel movement - Ans from internal organ efferent motor and affer sensory - Most project from spine except 12 nerves project from brain - Nerve from crainial region called cranial nerve - Cranial nerve include both somatic and ans - Cranial nerves from cranial region contain som and ans Cranial - 1 to 12 - Most serve sens and motor function in head and neck - Enter and exit at brainstem level - Carry noth sensory and motor signal - All different target structure they control or receive info from - Some sensory some motor and some carry both - 1 strictly sensory - 2 collect senroy infrom from retina to brain - 8 sensory from hair cells in cochlear organ collect information in sound wave - Hypogls only in motor - And 3 eye movement – high level of complexity and evo generate 3 crainial nerve to control eyball movement in differen ooreientations Table - Remember General layout - Central n s is important for long term survivial evo developed elaborate strcuutes to protect nerve system - Brain and spine protected from 3 componets Structures - Bone and membranes call meninges meninx sing - Csf liquid Three - Underneath have membrain strucurer and underneath have dura mater or dura meninx - Arachnoid memebrane rd - 3 layer pia matter stick to cns surface - Protect the brain Ventricles - What about csf how protect brain - Chamber filled with csf called ventricles - Ventricular system - 2 chamber in forebrain lateral ventricle one left one right hem - Between two third ventricle a lot smaller then lateral only one in middle and 4 below all connected to each other - Inside ventricle have choroid plexus pertruding capiilary structre thin blood vessel and plexus produce csf by filtering blood no red blood cells bc plexus filter out big cells large molecules - Liquid serve two finction - Acts as mech cushion - Floating not bang in skull - Nutritional support actually transfer glucose and other nutrients ions from blood and provide to brain - And process of transfer nutrients is plexus - Csf important human develop tumor there or lose function result to much or too little too much buldge brain hydrocephaleus water brain - Lethality if not remove - Too little brain not enough mec support or nutritional support Cells - Two major cells Cells - Neurons and glia Neurons - Receiveing info and conveying info and comm. With other neurons cells specialized for communication diff size and shape - Understand shape The neuron - Stereotypic - 4 regions - Soma contain nucleus and long axon and tip axon terminal - Receive through dendrite - Arrive there and those infor intergrated in hillock and those info travel to axon terminal - Diff compartment diff zone - Axon conduction zone - Terminal output zone - Serve different function - Equipped with right functional comp Soma - Maintan cell sur by carrying genetic info and prividng energy - And produce proetein to maintain neuron health - Organelles in soma – nucleus blue thing carry genetic info and other strcutres made of membranes - Edo ret – some have ribsome produce protein and ribo rough no rib have no called smooth - Yelloe golgi app – sorting protein to designated target in cell - Synt and golgi pack in membrane and send to destination - Mitochondria red – organell fro producing energy - Lot of energy lot of mito Dendrites - Recive from envi or other neurons act like attennna - Receive info from other neurons - Comm. Between is done release chemical - Dendrite to reviece have receptors reco chem. Released from other neurons Axon - In neuron - From dendrite to axon terminal release chme Terminal - Infor arrive release nts chem. To comm. b/w neurons
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