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PSY290 - Somatosensory System (Chapter 8) lecture.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
John Yeomans

How muscles controlled by motor neurons: - sit in ventral horn --> dorsal root -->neurons  Brain stem motor pathways: trigeminal (CN5), (CN3,4,6)  At higher levels--major brain areas  Cerebrum-->esp important for fast movements (hand/eye)  Cerebellar lesions-->issues with reflexive movements  Cerebellum adjusts reflexes--so set to perform faster actions  In forebrain--basal ganglia--motivation & motor control  habit, reward learning  Striatum--smooth movements based on reflex-learning  When pathways lost (parkinsons, huntingons)  Nucleus accumbens*  Primary motor cortex--first mapped area in entire cortex (motor strip/cortex)  Legs--top  Head--bottom  All cortical areas--map contralateral side of body  Exceptions = speech & other unilateral functions Overall organization:  Muscles--kinesthetic feedback-->spinal chord  Back by dorsal root  Complex voluntary movement--secondary and association cortex Central fissure: somatotopic map M1 and S1 MATCH EACH OTHER! (primary motor and somatosensory) - m1 controlled by info from s1 - V1--primary visual area (occipital)  posterior parietal --hand eye coordination(joining occipital and parietal)  Bimodal/multimodal 2 major visual pathways:  Primary--colour & space  Secondary (ventrotemporal lobe)--what is it?  Spatial information--posterior parietal area  Where in relation to body and outside world  Sum: visual streams = object + location Posterior Parietal Cortex:  Movement perception & prediction  Hand-eye coordination  Attention to contralateral space  Contralateral Neglect if injured  E.g. Body self-image: “Man who fell out of bed” Primary Motor Cortex:  Area for tongue, lips (vocalization apparatus)-->happens to be next to Broca’s area Association cortex areas (in front of primary motor):  Pre-motor strip--cued movement from other spatial areas/sensory systems Frontal eye fields:  Voluntary Eye movement--not in primary motor strip  Sometimes called association area, but not  Is primary motor area--distinct from primary motor cortex Secondary motor cortex:  Frontal eye fields--eye movements  Pre-motor cortex  Before precentral gyrus  Cued movements--triggered by touch  Audio/visual cues, leading to voluntary response movements  E.g. “move your hand”  Another bimodality  Supplementary cortex  Large region @ top of premotor strip-->conti
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