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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Neurochemistry continued

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Franca Placenza

Nicotine o Derived from the tobacco plant o Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Ionotropic Has 5 binding sites on it Excitatory (allows Na+ and some K+ in) 2. Nicotinic receptors o Found on muscles o Found in a variety of brain structures Will only feel effects of nicotine if goes into the brain EX = ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens First 2 part of the dopamines reward and reinforcement Hippocampus & frontal cortex Part is learning and memory Substantia nigra and striatum Facilitates dopamine production and increases in motor behavior (not prominent in humans) 3. Behavioral Effects o Heightened alertness o Enhanced performance on learning tasks o Improved cognitive functioning o Enhanced memory o Addicting o Physical dependence Opiates and Depressants o Major form of depressants Depress the CNS o Derived from the extracts of the opium poppy seeds o Main active ingredient in opium is morphine Many natural and synthetic opiates EX = morphine, codeine (also found in poppy sac), heroin (gets into brain quicker and metabolized in brain the same way as morphine), methadone (synthetic form), oxycodone 4. Our brains also make opiates o Called endogenous opioid peptides EX = Endorphins, enkephalins, dynorphins o Are neurotransmitters 5. 3 types of opiate receptor subtypes: o Mu () The addicting drugs bind with high affinity with the mu receptors
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