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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Motor Control

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University of Toronto St. George
Franca Placenza

Movement 1. All movement involves contraction of muscles o Contractions of muscles are orchestrated by neural circuits in the spinal cord and brain 2. Neural circuits o Lower motor neuron circuits >>> control simple reflexive movements by spinal cord o Upper motor neurons circuits >> found in various parts of the brain that control voluntary movement and execution o EX = reaching for a glass 3. Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle (found in organs) are other types Anatomy of Muscles 4. Skeletal muscles = voluntary movement o Made up of hundreds of muscles fibers (essentially the cells of the muscle) Are multi-nucleid (more than one nucleus) o Main type of muscle 5. Each muscle enclosed in connective tissue o Forms tendons at ends that connects to bones 6. 2 main types of muscle fibers: o Extrafusal fibers = make up the bulk of the muscle o Intrafusal fibers = found within a specialized receptor called muscle spindle 7. Structure of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 8. Muscle fibers made up of organelles 9. Bundles of myofibril (protein molecules joined together) o Myofibril are divided into segments (sarcomere) Thin filaments > made up of actin Thick filaments > made up of myosin Muscle Contraction 10.Muscle contractions occur in response to firing of motoneuron 11.Firing of motor neuron releases acetylcholine (AcH) at neuromuscular junction o Neuromuscular junction where motor neuron synapse directly on the muscle fiber Highly specialized 1:1 relationship between firing and creation of action potential in the muscle fiber o Binds at nicotinic receptor on muscle fiber Depolarizes it and causes action potential 12.Action potential propagates (spreads) along muscle fibers
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