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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Neuroanatomy.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Neuroanatomy Lecture 2, September 18  Nervous Systems o Central Nervous System  2 Main parts:  Brain o There are 12 Cranial Nerves o They l eave from the brain stem and the forebrain. o Each has a different function and functional organisation  Spine o In between each of the vertebrae, there is a spinal nerve above and one below, making 31 spinal nerves o Peripheral Nervous System  Somatic Nervous System  Efferent (“going-away”) nerves o Connects with skin and muscles to connect with outside world  Afferent (“coming –to”) nerves  Autonomic Nervous System  Afferent nerves o Come intor the spinal cord and brain  Efferent nerves (separated anatomically) o Sympathetic nervous system  Causes rapid release of energy such as in fight or flight reactions  A release of energy for re/action o Parasympathetic nervous system  Accumulation of energy by way of the digestive tract  The storage of energy  The cerebral ventricles o Originate from 2 major spaces  The 2 lateral ventricles within the forebrain  The third ventricle in the diencephalon (sp??)  An aqueduct that carries liquid down is close to the Fourth ventricle  Coming out of the Fourth ventricle, there is the Central canal  Neural pathways o The organisation of neurons  Cell body (Soma)  Where the nucleus of the cell is found  Nucleus = where the DNA of the cell is located  Synapses extend from the cell body  Dendrites are found at the tips of the synapses that receives info form other neurons  There is also an axon that sends information to other cells, that can be either very short or the length of the entire body  There can be myelinated (fatty) sheath that is found around the axon of the cell. This is actually its own cell, not a component of the cell.  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: has no protein bumps on them  Rough ones: have ribosomes where messanger DNA is turned into proteins  Golgi complex: pinches off pieces of membranes for making synaptic vesicles o They can be transported down the axons  The mitochondria o Like separate cells with their on DNA and a separate system  Cell membranes o Made up of lipid membranes (2 layers) o Has a series of channel proteins that allows the flow of ions and specialised proteins of sorts o Types of neurons  Unipolar neurons  Typical sensory neuron from the skin  One long axon  There is a cell body that has no dendrites  An axon that bypasses the cell body  Cell body in the dorsal route ganglion  Bipolar neurons  Bipolar because there is an axon coming from the source and extending from the cell body  Connects rods and cones with the sensory neurons within the brain  Multipolar neurons  Many dendrites and one axon  Multipolar interneuron  A small cell body  Several dendrites, but no axon at all  Much less complicated o Within the CNS, there are many types of Gleol cells (sp>)  Oligodendrocyte  Has a few dendrite-like arms  They do not have synapses, but form myelin sheats around axons.  Once the dendrites form, they slowly grow and wrap around the axons  In the PNS, the nyelin is made of a different type of cell called the Schwann cell  Has the same effect as the Oligodendrocyte but acts differently  Staining cells o Golgi method: The cells within the brain  Their dendrites are hard to find but the cell bodies aren’t  If you put silver in the brain, it gets deposited in neurons (active ones?) oxidises and produces a black stain  You can see the complete neurons isolated separately and is still the best way to see them  One theory is that the ones that have open channels allow the silver to leak in (THEORY)  Still a mystery why this works, even 130 years later  Proteins need to be fixed in either an open or closed state  You can do this with a stain that’s injected into each individual cell, but that’s harder/takes longer o Nissle stain  Simply a food.clothes dye thats dfoud in nature  It’ll attach itself to nucleic acid  So, you are staining the cell body and ribosmes  It allows you to count neurons and find thewhere the highest concentration of cells are o High-power images such as electron microscopes  Anatomical directions in a vertebrate o Head area: anterior/rosteral (sp??) o Tail end: posterior/coddle (sp??) o Dorsal: up; Ventral: down, o When looking forward, Medial means going inward (like convergence) and lateral is outward ( like divergence o HOWEVER: With humans, since we’ve evolved to be bipedal, our directions for the body are different  Ventral: towards the chest from the spine; Dorsal: from chest to spine  How you can slice the brain o Sagittal plane: Cutting along the longitudinal fissure (corpus collosum)  Parasaggital: like saggital but not in the centre o Horizontal: Divides brain into a dorsal and ventral part via a horizontal cut o Cross: Cross-cutting the brain stem o Frontal: “Coronal: crown”  Dorsal and Ventral roots of the Spinal Cord o Sensory info from the body  From the skin/muscles, and enter the spinal cord by way of the roots.  Notice that it splits,  There is a Unipolar Sensory axon, and the cell body is located at the
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