• Psychoanalytical concepts- importance of satisfaction of children's drives with emphasis on physical
rather than on emotional needs
• Ethology- emphasizing the evolutionary purposes of behaviour-the child is 'biologically based' to
develop attachment behaviour in order to ensure survival. Child will be part of society, be raised
successfully and ensure the maximum trust. Erik Erikson- trust-physical comfort, predictability, minimum
fear of the future that produces a social connection within individuals. To demand and provide- close
proximity. Signalling behaviour- cry, smile, babbly to bring into close proximity.And can engage in
approach behaviour- following, reaching, crawling and moms will respond because moms are adapted,
Stage in development of attachment:
• 0-2 Pre attachment-indiscriminate social behaviour. Child doesn't have visual acuity, can't tell difference
between people as long as their physical needs are met
• 2-7 Attachment in the making-recognition of familiar people. They can distinguish and discriminate
between familiar and non-familiar people. Perceptual development and cognitive development take place.
Don't see a behavioural difference but increasingly at distinguishing studied by how long child looks at
familiar faces and can tell by child's comfort level in different situations ie/being picked up by someone
they know or don't know
• 7-24 month Clear cut attachment- Separation protest, fear of strangers, intentionality. Deliberate
behaviour ie/attachment seeking- clinging, temperate throwing.
24-Goal-corrected partnership.Asecure attachment develops and there is an internal mechanism present,
goals are being set between child and parent in terms of how much proximity there is ie/24/7.they have to
separate and how much ie/lots in five years. Both have input mom stays home, dad goes to work. If child
has difficult at day care then mom will quit job to stay home. The culture influences ie/ mom stays home
o Two sided relationship- both influence
o Understanding of parental needs
o Control system mechanism- set point of level of comfort ie/by heating ro cooling-analogy ex/
going to a birthday party and know no one there. On one hand, child wants to be with mom-
Internal working model (symbolic mental representations to guide child's behaviour which
includes emotional and cognitive components)
Onset of FirstAttachment
• Key criteria: what happens when child is separated from mother
• Early attachment-little tolerance especially in unfamiliar situations- typically begins around 7-8 months
along with fear of strangers.
• Why does this occur during third quarter of first year? The development of cognition:
o recognition memory- ability to differentiate the attachment figure from other people. They are
able to compare schema with stored image and determine if it is it. Before that they were not able to
do it. So important precursor for child to start developing unique relationships.
o Object (and person) permanence- child remains aware of an object during its absence.Appears
around 7 months. Objects exists even if you don’t see it, understanding of the world- child knows at
some level when a child achieves permanence, and mom isn't here, will know she exists. Before
mom didn't exist.
To whom do infants become attached?
• Bowlby- a single person, usually the mother. Risk if it is mom- mom dies giving birth. From
evolutionary- mom change to be their for child but • Doesn't have to be parent- teacher, adoption, grandparent.Anyone can presume this role. Tend to see that
conditionally attachment is first to mom because shes around, as getting older then dad comes into the
picture. Ie/two kids born around the same time-first child gets mom and second child will be attached to
• Doesn't matter if male or female. Moms go through biological changes and g