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Lecture 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY311H1
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Winter

Description
LECTURE 3 Constructing First Relationships • The emergence of the first relationship is fascinating and may be a prototype for all subsequent relationships ie/social smile • We infer relationships from interactions but the sum of interactions does not equal a relationship Stages of Interactional Development: • Biological regulation (0 months) o Developmental Task: to regularize the infant's basic biological processes and to harmonize them with parental requirements. Ie/sleeping and eating patterns are different. Parent brings in own ideas how to regulate child others may take a laisez faire approach, on the other end adapt to parents current lifestyle. Characterized by basic functions such as crying, smiling but not a reactive smile. • Face to face exchanges (2 months) o Developmental Task: to regulate mutual attention and responsiveness in face to face situations. Ie/sitting in 45 degree chair. Ie.direct eye contact is important. Childs ability to discriminate between two different individuals important because able to develop a relationship even if have visual impairment can rely on other senses. Babies need to scan the entire face. Debate about an innate disposition ie.eye tracking implying inborn mechanism.Afull face required in order to trigger a smile. Cycles of attention and non-attention (which we all have it). Important that parents regulate and synchronize their stimulation with the child. Parents can control their own attention and stimulation. Initial development of turn taking especially in verbal communication. • Topic Sharing (5 months) o Developmental Task: to incorporate objects into social interactions and ensure joint attention and action to them. • Reciprocity (8 months) o Developmental Task: to initiate intentional actions directed at others and develop more flexible and symmetrical relationships. Intentional is each partner will start a conversation. All three components important: intentional, flexibility, reciprocity-not just reactive. Symmetrical will change over time in dysfunctional families and hierarchical family systems-clear who the parent is in the relationship. Start seeing coordination of several activities (from topic sharing). Ie/crawling, sitting up, reaching, using hands, babbling, listening. Parents are going to engage in fun games with the child. Teaches turn taking in conversations, teaches child repetition. Ie/peek a-boo. Starting to show reciprocity and gradually over time will be able to do it better. Then gradually symmetrical relationship will change intentionally. Develops into give and take, starts with take because child takes it then later contributes. Once there is intentionality, child has developed mature social exchanges. Want to see these milestones developing. • Gestures and social referencing Gestures include pointing, handing objects. Have significant meaning, not just okay picking up a block and hand it to mom, may have some meaning but gestures become more complicated. Ie/ dad comes from work, child points to dad-meaningful to mom, has incorporated both parents into communication with emotion. Gestues clear intentionality with clear meaning, and an idea expressed. Initial gestures are concrete not symbolic. Symbolic gesture is ie/nodding head for yes or no because don’t really mean anything. Concrete gestures gradually become symbolic gestures. • Social Referencing: child looks at parent for approval or feedback for a planned action. Looks at parents while starting to do something. Child undesrtadns their action will have a reaction and negative so may not want to go through with their action. • Symbolic representation (18 months) o Development Task: To develop verbal and other symbolic means of relating to others and reflecting upon social exchanges. Speech is symbolic. Public speaking is difficult start off early. Categories of Parental Behaviour: 1. Nurturant: meets physical requirements. Ie/food 2. Material: provision and organization of material world. Parents make different decisions how to organize material world ie/ size of house-own room far away from parents, own washroom to everyone sleeping in one room. Major implications on child- isolated from family or constantly be with other people- sense of security. Ie/mom be home with child and dad work so as a consequence live in small house vs child at daycare both parents work to live in bigger house. 3. Didactic: stimulating and engaging infan
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