Two Important Hypotheses:
Sensitivity Hypothesis: Security of attachment is determined by the degree to which
mother was sensitive and responsive in handling infant during early.
• Competence Hypothesis: Individual differences in security of attachment predict
individual differences later in life.
One may expect that because of the excessive caregiving demands on moms of twins they
will show less secure attachments.
• One may expect that pre-term infants are less likely than full term infants to be securely
• In many families a baby has school-age siblings. How does quality of attachment
between mom and each child affect the relationship between the infant and he sibling?
Knowledge of the Self and of Others Cognitive development, Social experiences-feeling
adequate or inadequate if around people with higher gpa- social groups.
The Self:( Hypothetical constructs)
• Self-Awareness: a social structure which arises through social experience.
1. Existential aspect of awareness- possessing continuity over time and having a
distinct entity from others. Two concepts: self-permanence- you are permanent.
visual recognition of oneself- recognize yourself as you.
2. Categorical aspect: children's ability to define themselves in objective categories.
Ie/Age, sex, size. What human category they are a part of.
• Self-Concept: cognitive aspect of the self- the subjective knowledge we have of
ourselves a psychological and physical beings. Based from your understanding of yourself.
Person's values, culture, interests. Ie/ boy grown up in Canada will have a self-concept of
being a hockey player. Social experiences you have the opportunity to be a part of.
1. Ideal Self- what you really love to be
2. True Self/Objective self: the actual, doesn’t measure up to the ideal self often.
3. Self Concept- could be consistent with ideal self or incongruent with true self.
One self is not stable, changes with cognitive development and social experiences. Nature
of the competition can be changing so ie/ no longer think they are smart.
• Self-esteem: an individual's feelings of his/her own worthiness and competence. Global
evaluation of one's self. Think of your self as a human being as a whole. Evaluative self.
Changes based on social experiences and development so is static but could be permanent.
Low self esteem permanently with abuse or other negative experiences.
• Emotional-self: self evaluation normally results in the production of affect. Ie/cant reach
your desire then gradually come to that idea lowering to ideal self to true self.
Stages in the development of self-Awareness in the first two years:
• 0-3 Interest in social objects, but no self- other distinction. More attention to their
biological functions, no perceptual abilities to develop a relationship in social experiences
• 3-8 first signs of self- recognition, based on contingency clues, but still tentative and
unreliable. Contingency-if point to mirror doesn’t know that it is them-rouge test if pass
then first sign
• 8-12 emergence of self-permanence. Recognition of self through contingency. Emergence
of feature recognition. Feature recognition is more difficult. • 12-24 consolidation of basic self-categories (age, gender etc.). Feature recognition
Developmental Changes in Self-Concept
1. From Simple to differentiated: younger children form global concepts; older
children make finer distinctions and allow for circumstances. Self-concept at young age
develops into a global statement from global judgements. Ie/I am a great hockey player but
I didn’t have a great game or I am a great hockey player but I am not good in school.
2. From inconsistent to consistent: younger children are more likely to change their
self-evaluation; older children appreciate the stability of the self-concept. Ie/ kid had a bad
day will never play again or be average player but lack of competition allows to do better
so perceive themselves as a great player and them flip again with competition. When
stable- doesn’t change self-concept or give up.
3. From concrete to abstract: younger children focus on external, visible, physical
aspects; older children focus on internal, invisible, psychological aspects.
4. From absolute to comparative- younger children focus on self without reference
to others; older children describe themselves in comparison with others. -ie/kid score a goal
without competition and think they are great without social comparison.At older ages they
realize to develop a self-concept in areas important to them must compare with other
5. From self-as-public to self-as-private: younger children do not distinguish
between private feelings and public behaviour; older children consider private self as 'true
self'. Young kids say what they think-lack of understanding that there are convention of
different types of privacy people have.
Self Esteem Coopersmith
• Significance: how much is a person loved and approved by o