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Lecture 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Stuart Kamenetsky

LECTURE 6 Sex Role Development Developmental Timeline • Infancy-distinguish faces by sex • 2 years- label by sex: being male or female as an important social category • 3 years: sex-stereotyping in toy preference. In egalitarian family, raise children the same. • 4 years: some rigid stereotypes about occupations. Tangible occupations they can conceptualize easily. Ie/truck driver, policemen are men, teachers are women. Black and white world, still developing understanding of the world. Will later learn to make exceptions. • 5 years: association of personality traits with sex Key definitions: • Sex: biological dimension of being male or female • Gender: Sociocultural dimension of being male or female. If from a traditional culture, clear that people's who's sex is males have certain expectations and female have another set. Ex. Men work outside the home and bring income where women tend to family and don't bring income. In liberal, that distinguish is the same in other cultures but is different. • Gender Role: set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should think, act, and feel. • Gender Role Stereotypes: broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males- image of what typical male and female would be like. Use quick judgements, rely on heuristics. Ie/in our culture women have long hair and men have short hair. How do children display gender roles? • Toy preferences- by age 3 as a clear pattern of choices emerges, although boys develop this pattern quicker than girls. Ie/ not okay to dress boy in pink but okay for girl to dress in blue. • Personality characteristics- from 2-3 years of age boys are consistently more aggressive. Don't see this in girls. Seen in egalitarian families. • Choice of playmates- between 1-2 years of age there is a steep increase in choice of same sex playmates. Don’t have object constancy. Parallel play, prefer someone else in the room then gradually play with another toddler. No preference for gender playmate until boys become aggressive. Girls are intimidated and don’t play with boys until school years. • Psychological and behavioural differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence. Gender Role Orientation High Male Low Male High Female Androgynous Feminine Low Female Masculine Undifferentiated Regardless of what your sex is you may have stereotypical feminine, masculine, androgynous, or undifferentiated traits. Feminine: nurturing, caring, emotional. Males: strong, assertive, rational.Androgynous: not completely male/female. Males have primarily male characteristics and few feminine will do well. Females with primarily female characteristics will do well. Masculine characteristics regardless of biological are more predictive of adjustment. Gender Roles: Theoretical Explanations 5 theories 1. Evolution/Sociobiology (sex is you gender) 2. Social reasons-Learning-conditioning and Social Learning- observation, role model 3. Psychoanalytic theory 4. Cognitive Development 5. Gender Schema Theory- Strongest, most empirical study. Includes Social reasons and cognitive development. Cognitive development and social experiences. Evolution/Sociobiology: Males and females have different purposes in life and behave accordingly. Their genetic endowment is responsible for their different behaviours just as it is responsible for their different physical characteristics. Ie/ only up to mom to carry baby for nine months, nurture baby and male role has no part. Evolution related to behaviour and physical characteristics. Womens hormonal changes that make them difficult to be separate from baby. Men will become stronger because they are the ones who hunt and bring back food and will have ability to protect family. Social Reasons: From an early age different parental expectations and treatment. Ie/ dad models certain behaviours for sons to learn.Adaptive, enforcement and reinforcement and observation are three methods. 1. No Sissy stuff: differentiates boys from girls. Ie/ boy injures his knee and is crying 2. Be a big wheel: encourages boys to be superior to others and compete instead of cooperate. Ie/in hockey share the puck and take part but implicitly if boy scores will have a greater impact when team wins. If want to be successful, must be doctor, best student. 3. Be a sturdy oak: male independence and self-reliance but also keep boys asking for help when needed and uncomfortable with their emotions. Ie/ man need gsp for women will ask someone. Men don’t want to admit to defeat, being lost, where in women doesn't affect personality. 4. Give 'em hell: power oriented, aggressive, ruthless, violent. Ie/violent boy games, their targeted. Depict men that are aggressive drivign fast, shooting. Encouraging boys to be strong, violent. If child is being bullied, going to bring father, girls will not are not power oriented. Boys make comparisons using house, cars to assert their dominance. Seen the same in animal kingdom, fighting for territory or females. *18:00*Provides thereotical account, more complicated, but when children brought up, boys and girls seek particular roles. Seen in egalitarian families where boys will be encouraged to play sports. These messages are still important and negative side not developing their other side-men learn to express their emotions. We don’t tolerate what boys do but tolerate what women do ie/not want a career. This is because they have less valued competitive that are not valued. How do these messages work? • Learning theory ( reinforcement principles) • Social learning theory (imitation) • Probably not that simply because of: o Biological/physiological differences o Unlikely to be based on simple learning mechanism *24:31* o Little evidence that children select same sex role model for vicarious learning ie/girl and may be close to father or vice versa, learn a lot from people around us not how to act like girl or boy. Many different ways to why we select role model by vicarious learning o Begins extremely early with little reinforcement. o Cause and effect? Research met
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