LECTURE 7:Families, parents and socialization
• Interrelated concepts as socialization takes place largely by parents within the context of
• Family Systems (characteristics): relationships between members, unique between each
set of members ie/marital, dad and son, dad and daughter, siblings etc.
o Wholeness: be seen as a whole unit, organized whole that is greater than the sum
of its particular. Look at family as an entire organism.
Integrity of subsystems: ie. Uniqe relationships of the whole family system.
Complex systems consist of subsystems related to one another. Ie.relationships which
are related to one another. Ex/mom and dad have lousy marriage and can't get
divorced, have two children. There are alliances and allegiances between dad and son
and mom and daughter so spend a lot of time which puts a strain on sibling
relationship. Each subsystem has life of its own but influences each other.
o Circularity of influences: circular rather than linear. Influences happens in all
direction not just top down from older people (linear). If mom and dad do or don’t get
long will determine how children's relationship will be. If child has disability or
difficulty in school, will be another influence that affects parental relationships.
o Stability and Change: system is affected by outside influences, they resist change
but when change occurs to one component, it effects the entire system. Ie/ one twin
gets a girlfriend and other twin is left alone, parents will be protective over brother
left behind, and brother will be resistant to change. The family will reluctantly adjust
and will encourage the brother to find his own girlfriend. Other type of changes are
more drastic ie/ divorce, death, moves away, grandmother moves in.
Types of Families:
• Nuclear families: married parents, only biological children. Where divorces were not
• Traditional families: more about roles than biological children. Typically, parents are
married. Dad works outside as bread winner and mom is homemaker. Tends to be nuclear
• Families can change for many different reasons: same sex families, blended families-step
parents with other kids, single parent families-death, teen pregnancy, extended family,
• More and more it is difficult to state what a family consists of
Single Parent Families:
• Large increase since the 1960s throughout the world: 9.1% in 1960 compared to 24.7% in
1990 in the U.S. 55% among AfricanAmericans in the U.S. numbers refer to proportion of
children living with only one parent. Prediction is that half ofAmerican children will spend
some part of their childhood in a single-parent family. Single parenthood is a transitional
status for many parents with median length of time children are raised by single mothers of
• Negative views (breakdown of moral values) as in part accurate. Kids are at risk for
emotional difficulties, psychological a