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LECTURE 1.docx

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Hywel Morgan

LECTURE 1 Bad taste-hard wired, adaptive. But attracted to sweet taste-sugar, glucose. We are hardwired to b eattracted to these tastes-salt, sour, bitter. Language is hardwired, capablity to acquire language, geneticly inherited, can evolve. We are hard wired to acquire a behaviour but if donot have exposure in the crtical period it is never acquired. Ex/victor-speech In infancy-habituation-staring longer at unique, new or impossible situations. Can tell what they learned and are adaptive to. Lack of ability to habituate is a disorder-autism. Ex/visual cliff-infants that adapt and learn it symbolically-milestone so hardwired. Not hardwired because you have to fall first. -conservation January 13, 2014-Piaget's theory of development Influential for infant development, mainly cognitive development. Piaget-swiss psychologist. Vygostsky- russian psychologist. At birth-infant.After -toddler.At 5-10: chil. 10-13:middle adulthood. 13-19: adolescence Piaget explained how we adapted to our environment from infancy to adolescence. He proposed: that by adapting, you build schemas right from infancy. It is a framework. Second was that this proceeded in stages. Freud was the first to say stages, if you cant pass stage 1, you can't get to stage 3, you get stuck. Not all psychologists have proposed this. Piaget's theory: Schemes • Psychological Structures- organized ways of making sense of experience o "scripts" basic cognitive structures, help us make sense of our world. We rely on schemas to adapt to our world. It is what you expect. Schemas help us to adapt to our environment, efficient, can help make things go wrong. When environment does not conform to schema-mistake-'I didn't see that coming'. Schemas for everything. Will not change, difficult to change a schema. o If learned a schema that is dysfunctional is called abnormal behaviour, which is pathology. Ex/ "im stupid, not worth' o Schemas start in infancy, piaget suggested, first schema was 'suck'. • Change with age o Action-based sensorimotor patterns ie/suck • Start off very basic, get more elaborate as time goes on o Later move to 'thinking before acting' pattern-creative and deliberate Building schemes • Adaption-building schemes through direct interaction with environment • Assimilation- using current schemes to interpret external world • Accommodation-adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment Piaget said occurs throughout childhood, difficult to change. End of middle childhood at 10 or 12, as becoming established is malleable but difficult to change. Can build on a new schema but not create a new one. If not learned during a critical period will not be developed UsingAssimilation andAccommodation Equilibrium and disequilibrium • Use assimilation during equilibrium • Disequilibrium prompts accommodation Organization- internal rearranging and linking schemes. o Propositional networking-semantic network: linking things together. Ie/say a related word to the one word: concepts that are related together in propositional network. Piaget first to introduce to link concepts that can be rearranged. Network of propositions are all activated-ie/triggered words Sensorimotor Stage • Birth to 2 years • Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration • Circular reactions-sucking first schema (reflex), becomes a pattern-suck other things, then pattern becomes circular because gets the same desired outcome. Ie/cry so does the same thing, will not try anything new. Form of conditioning. Substages: 1. Reflexive schemes: sucking innate 2. Primary circular reactions 3. Secondary circular reactions 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions-object permanence- an object out of sight continues to exist, a child will not realize until 1 year. Interested in objects that have a lot of contour, not familiar with, stare longer and stare at contour- contrasts, shadows, shape, shades and third is stare at faces. If put a blanket then will lose interest because think it is non-existent. 5. Tertiary circular reactions- manipulate objects 6. Mental representation-deferred imitation, modeling behaviour that they have seen someone else do. Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight • Develops in Substage 4. Not yet complete.A-not-B search error. Errors made at 1 year old. Mental representations Internal, mental depictions of people, events, information • Can manipulate with mind • Permits deferred imitation and role play o Role play, imitating things they have seen. Past 2-role play what they haven't seen. Violation-of-expectation method Habituation even. Car on railway. Stare longer because unexpected. What is the reason for this test? To see if infants younger then 1 are familiar with the object permanence. The answer is yes they are. Deferred imitation Piaget: develops about 18 months Newer research: • 6 weeks- facial imitation. Seems to be hard wired, imitating facial features. Ie/yawn. • 6-9 months- copy actions with objects • 12-14 months- imitate rationally • 18 months- imitate intended, but not completed, actions Evaluation of the Sensorimotor stage Some suggest infants are born with core knowledge-b
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