Lecture 5: Language Development
• Phonological (sound), thought to involve theories of pattern recognition part of schema,
becomes automatic. Requires exposure over time. From long-term memory.
• Semantic (meaning) smallest unit of meaning. Syllables, morpheme, bank-more than one
meaning. Carry denotation, definition but also connotation. Spinster-connotation attached
to this multi slabic word.Acused-negative connotation, presubposition. Words may have a
fuzzy set-waste basket. Contextual words-not clearly understand what it is related to. Ie/ in
advertising. Translation ie/biscuit. Metaphors-meaning is different until12 years of age.
Bleeding me dry.
• Syntactic (grammar): telegraphic speech (two words), rules for words. Has a surface
structure and underlying structure. Propositional units are basic ideas. Syntax identifies
propositional units. Ie/ brave young Snoopy withstood the cat's sharp blows. Has 5 ideas.
Snoopy was brave, cats blows, sharp blows.
• Pragmatic (context/communication): My what a beautiful day-when there is a storm,
sarcasm. The troops marched into battle for two hours. Context coming from a babysitter.
Listener has to be sensitive to the meaning of language. Disorder isAsperger's Syndrome.
Unable to understand context, affective and social.
-LAD, learning quickly, parts of the brain comprehends-Wernke and produce-Broca. Requires
exposure, complex rules.
-bilingual: intelligence increases -trilingual: no more increase -more languages: intelligence
Language and the Brain
Neurolinguistics: a special branch of linguistics which studies the physical structure of the brain
as it relates to language production and comprehension. Requires exposure to the environment.
Broca-production and Wernicke-comprhension. Left hemisphere at the cortex involved in
comprehending and producing language. Damaged Wernike-loss of comprehension of language
in the temporal lobe near the ears. Broca in frontal lobe, primary motor cortex for voluntary