Higher Order mental functions: Thinking, Comprehending, reasoning (inductive and deductive),
understanding, problem solving. Function of frontal lobes.
Require working memory capacity. Schemas makes working memory easier, filling in gaps.
Schema:Astructure of knowledge, way you think based partially on schema, learnt from
Breaks down and organizes, intrprets information cognitively.
Four basic priniciples how schematic information is involved in the encoding process:
1. Selection: selecting information into existing schema called, accomodation.
2. Abstraction: information is brought up and schema is assigned a certain
3. Interpretation: the information we fill in, don’t need all the details. When thinking
about things we interpret using schemas.
4. Integration:Assimilation, information is integrated into previous learnt material.
Major function of schema, from infancy, is to guide the drawing of inferences, build connection
from new information and previous learnt information. One area of inference drawing can lead to
cognitive and economic difficulty. Schema can be manipulated and the way you spend your
money through advertising. On average see 200 ads per day, can be misconception and deception
(illegal). I can misconceive you through advertising is not illegal. Often languages used is ads are
often miscomprehended, unintentional lying (conceiving)
Techniques in ads:
1. Hedging: words are used that seriously weaken the force of the claim but the
hedge (words) is not remembered, only claim is remembered. Not illegal, using schemas to
Listener often constructs an optimistic interpretation. Ie/zozak pills may help relieve tension:
hedge word is 'may' or 'may not'. Schema created is going to buy pills to relieve. Not deception
because may or may not. Have developed a schema. Ie/ crest fights cavity. Hedge: fight or lose.
Schema: always win fights.
1. Elliptical Comparative: comparing it to something that comes back on its own.
Comparing to something that doesn’t exist. Ie/new and improved 50% more. Schema
developed see the word 'more' means got to have it, better product. Ie/ less fat, less calories.
No basis for comparisons. Claim varies considerably depending on comparison.
1. Implied Causation: we frequently imply causation. Seen in newspapers.
Doughnuts and cancer but really third variable. Two imperative statements together that
one causes the other.
Ie/ get a great tan this summer. Use coppertone. Implication is if you use copertone you
will get a great tan. There are two separate imperatve. Schema is if use copertone will get a
1. Pseudo-Scientific claims: fake, not really science. Not deception, no lie
involved. Manipulating schema developed. Ie/7 out of 10 dentists recommend dentine.
They work for the company and not all of them agree. Don’t know where stats came from,
don’t know how many surveyed. No percentage. Ie/ 40% more cleaning power than the
leading brand. Which brand, what power, and what is 40 being compared to 1. Implied negative: coca cola has no cancer causing artificial sweetners. Implying
doesn’t cause cancer but pepsi does. Reasoning: pepsi doesn’t. Hand R block will
accompany you to an audit. Schema: if file with them will get money 's worth.Advertising
ploy, working on your schema. Schema: other companies won't, will accompany me if
government wont audit. Envoking implied negative, implication:other companies wont
come to an income tax audit. Very crafty because it is the law to accompany you to an
audit, and don’t have a choice. They are using the schema you have.
3 primary facets of cognition: processes information, is active, useful and purposeful. We use
schemas and logic. Schemas develops first in infancy later logic, explained by Piaget.Adults we
don’t primarily use logic, we continue to rely on schemas, we are better using logic to solve
problems but do not rely heavily on it. Ie/procedural memory-automatic driving, wrong place.
Active- doesn’t necessarily mean conscious.
Reasoning: When we try to cognitively process information to reach specific conclusions. Does
require conscious. There is a simple goal ie/will you have dinner, what will you have".
2 types: formal reasoning: deductive (valid premise, valid conclusion)-rules ie/2 plus two must
always be four.
Everyday reasoning- Inductive reasoning- probabilities and truths about premises and
conclusions. Ie/advertising based on schema. This is how this should work and have always
worked before, don’t need rules. We use both.
Intelligence: both reasoning require intelligence. Know facts and can adapt to the environment is
intelligence. Can deduce using facts and induce using schemas. Deductive more reliable,
inductive is easier. Individuals ability to think rationally, understand complex ideas, act
purposefully, learn from experience, and adapt effectively to the environment. We need both
reasoning to able to do these things effectively. Deductive more effective to come to right answer
but takes a lot of time.
Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence
1. Fluid Int