Lecture 9:Adolescence Cognitive development
Conceptions of Adolescence:
Biological Perspective: puberty, storm and stress, Freud- genital stage. Hormonal changes that
are occurring. More active parts of the brain. Major source of stress are parents. Social
Perspective: social and culture influence- You form perspectives of the world that are not the
same as your parents, you de-idealize them. Begin to form opinions that maybe naïve on global
warming. Parents are practical whereas teens do not conform.
Balanced POV: both biological and social influences: forms cognitive perspectives a teenager
has about the world.
Parent-Child Relationships DuringAdolescence
Rise in Conflict: main source of information are not parents but main source of interaction are
peers. At 15 out with friends so distancing.Asocial shift is occurring.
• adaptive behaviour
• Psychological distancing
• Different views of teen readiness for responsibility
Most conflict is mild. Also affection, support. By 20 conflict is resolved.
Piaget's Theory: Formal Operational Stage- significant changes occurring because of reason,
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: deducing hypotheses from a general theory, pendulum
problem. Trial and error doesn’t require logic, takes a long time to learn through t-e. learning by
logic occurs at this stage. Propositional thought: evaluating the logic of verbal propositions.
Pendulum problem: could not solve this until adolescence. Depend on weight, length or arc of
swing to furthest are the choices. uses all three need to be used.
• School age children start developing abstract thinking skills ie/language. Logical
necessity. Way of thinking we don’t use all the time because rely on schemas.
• Formal operations may not be universal. Training, context contribute, Often fall back on
easier thinking, Schooling essential factor. Symbolism early as 3 or 4.
Changes in the brain (chemicals and NT, myelination continuing to occur in adolescence)
make this possible
Information-Processing Improvements inAdolescence
-improved capacity, increase in attention due to prefrontal cortex, inhibition, memory strategies-
studying, knowledge base is increasing- semantic memory, metacognition-understanding what