LECTURE 7: Social Development and Moral Development
Understand self and your place in the world regards to other people which requires moral
development. Disorder if does not form an attachment, reactive attachment disorder. Unable to
form an attachment from birth. Piaget, and Vygotsky in social development. Sense of self with
regards to environment and sense of relationship to other people.
-critical period for reactive attachment disorder, and if not resolved by childhood socialization
continues to adult as antisocial personality disorder. They don’t develop a sense of others and
how others feel, do not develop empathy and shallow sympathy. Sympathy develops first,
Empathy develops later. Social cognition develops from birth.
Piaget-cognitive psychologist was the first to study this, perspectives and other affective
Highest order of development with full empathy-taking care of other's needs-Maslow: not many
people have this Maslow argued, we'd like to think we do have that level of empathy.
-senses produces affective component of behaviour
•Birth -2 months: Cognitive: infants habituate to the familiar, attending less and less to
repeated stimuli and increasing their attention when the stimulus changes. Infant can
differentiate among patterns, colors and consonants. Recognize facial expressions-affective
expressions. Interaction with another will change expression.
Attracted to human facial expressions right from birth, changes in the environment.
•Birth 2-months: Emotional: Dependent on the environment to meet his or her need.
Dependent on somebody else giving them what they need. If they don’t receive that will
develop a disorder.At birth to be dependent on a social interaction if does not occur, a
disorder will develop.Attachment psychologist: Lorenz.Attachment need to be con
specific-imprint that occurs in attachment, same species.
•2-6 months:- spontaneous, affective displays. voluntary social smile. What does smile
mean? To share emotion, attracts other people to you, connates internally we are happy and
put on display for other people to see, hardwired, have evolved this. Social purpose for
angry: don’t want people around.
o Increasing eye contact
•2-6 months. Cognitive:
o Qualitative change: development of meta cognition.
o 4 months of age infants are described as hatching socially. Developing schemas-
circular first, developing patterns, sense of self-me and you and significance.
o Explore their own bodies
o Sense of self-first stage of personality development. Called temperament-Style
which child is interacting with environment and caregivers.
•2-6 months. Emotional and communication:
o Distinct facial expressions. They are refined by social interaction. Hardwired to
express them but not detect. Learning to detect emotional expressions, seen as
interesting. Reactive attachment disorder: not exposed to emotional expressions and
do not understand.
o Initiating games, increases social development, usually involves facial
o Shows advances in cognitive understanding and communicative competence.
Intonation and sound. o Develop of will and intentions.
6-12 months Communication: 7 months adapt of nonverbal communication. Most salient
skill you are learning in school right from infancy. Will do well in life if effective
communicator. 9 months aware of the emotions. 8 and 10 months babbling takes. Social
interactions.Awareness you have an interaction and an attachment by 8 to 10 months. First
o Exploration of the environment increases and mobility. Ie/visual cliff. Infants
learn walk, crawl and fall, will respond to visual cliff differently by not passing over
plexi glass. Will respond differently based on caregiver on other end by facial
expression. If caregiver frowns, they will not crawl. Significant social development-
can hurt themselves by crawling over cliff and sense of somebody's else's thoughts
and feelings. Adulthood called trust require social development.Antisocial
personality disorder have a sense of self but not trust.
o Play things
o Imitation of parents and older children. Humans have the ability to model
behaviour, not clear in other species. Humans can imitate, significant for learning not
clear in species.
o Symbolic Play: imitation is used.
•6-12 months. Emotional:
Predominant mood changes: prefrontal not fully developed.
o Tantrum- get what I want from significant other.
•6-12 months. Linguistic:
o Infants speak their first words.
Respond appropriately to several simple statements.
o Points to major body parts and uses 4-6 words spontaneously and correctly.
Onmanticpic words- sound like what they are not, not symbol, come first ie/ouch
•12-24 months. Emotional:Attachment takes place from 0-2. toddler has attached to a
Separation Anxiety: Can see autism right from toddlerhood because don’t have a
separation anxiety. Normal social development, by 2: child is very upset.
o Self-conscious awareness: don’t see this in other species except apes and
dolphins. Rouge test.
12-24 months. Linguistic:
o Most dramatic development. Need exposure otherwise does not develop,
hardwired to acquire. If not exposed to socially by 12, will not acquire.
o Child's vocabulary balloons, the beginning of grammar
o Understand 2-step commands.
Moral Development: Moral is a social development, the rules how we socially interact with
each other even non caregivers.
Theory of Mind focuses on other's intentions. Develops with experience, only through social
interaction. Different aspects of society have different morals, there are universal morals that we
all prescribe to. Universal morals-laws. Realize by 2: understanding right or wrong.Also
beginning to understand accidental transgressors. Not fully developed. If do something wrong
and is an accident, not liable for transgressor. -By three year olds can identify victims of harm: empathy. Sympathy is developed already,
empathy develops at age three.
Six years olds can recognize an unintentional victim.
Seven year olds judge victims who resist illegitimate requests.
Moral Development: any changes in observed judgements, behaviours and emotions regarding
standards of right or wrong that occur in certain contexts across the lifespan.
Right or wrong: not definitive, socially acceptable, very changeable. True and right not the same
Three Moral Components-how developmentali