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Jan 7 Lecture 1 Cognitive Development.docx

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Adam Dube

Jan 7 Lecture 1 Cognitive DevelopmentDevelopmental PsychologyDevelopmental psychology is the study of lifelong often agerelated processes of changeMuch broader than cognitive development It includes social aspects of development self how family peers affect the individualththIt has only been developed since 18 century and early 19 centuryStudies on development of adolescence and aging onlybegan in 1960s and 1970sCognitive development interested solely in the development of thoughtChildhood five basic stagesPrenatal 9 months conception till birthInfancy and toddlerhood birth to 2 yearsEarly childhood 2 to 6 yearsMiddle childhood 6 to 11 yearsAdolescence 11 or 12 to 18 or 20 Adolescence is grouped under childhood because it is qualitatively different from adulthoodThese separations do not always existeven when they exist now they havent changed much as Piaget has originally outlined them the stages of developmentHistorical Views of ChildhoodMedieval TimesPreformationism after infancy children were regarded as miniature already formed adults That effectively children are no longer different from adult when they are out of infancy birth to seven of age at medieval times They are like little adult They think feel and act like adult At seven year of age they start practising skills and get jobs It is the age when Piaget defined as concrete operational stage this is when children can start to engage in step by step problem solving They can engage in logical reasoning as long as they have physical things to work withBut nowadays we believe children at 7 of age have different reasoning capacity than adults However at the same time we treat them as adults eg expect them to have same emotional regulation as an adult or charged and sentenced as adultsThe ReformationA revised view of childhood sprang from the religious belief of original sin Protestant believe in original sin People are born sinful and only through corrective behaviour to they learn behave properlyPhilosophies of the Enlightenment John Locke Tabula rasa children are born without preprogrammed set of behaviours the experience shape who they areIn todays society we believe children are not born to be racists OR any child can be born to be presidentdrives our society to put money into educationJean Jacques Rousseau noble savages opposite of reformation period children are born inherently good and society corrupts them by interacting with them Subtle parenting should be the primary parenting method hands off policy Darwins Theory of EvolutionThe early prenatal growth of many species is strikingly similar He observed other species not human during prenatal developmental and it is only to the end of the period that the species become different The development of the human child followed the same general plan as he evolution of the human species He believes by observing how the child grows you can learn how human evolve and change over time This belief caused tons of researchers study childhood Early Scientific Beginnings the study of childhoodThe baby biographiesEg Charles DarwinObserve child and make notes on what children do and why they do soIssues not most scientific way in observing the child Just observe but do not organize information The Normative Period of Child StudyG Stanley Hall father of developmental psychology Taking large groups of individual of the same age and observe what behaviours they do and what skills do they have They try to find out what was typical what was the average at this period what can or cannot they do at this timeGiselle make these studies public and make parents overly anxious about their childrens development
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