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Lecture 2

Jan 14 Lecture 2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period.docx

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Adam Dube

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Jan 14 Lecture 2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn PeriodPrenatal Development a brief OverviewDevelopment begins at conception the union of an egg from the mother and a spermConception occurs when an ovum and sperm from a zygote fertilized eggFor about five days the zygote floats down the fallopian tube About the fifth day after conception the zygote implants itself in the uterine wallthFrom implantation until the 49 day after conception the organism is called an embryo More rapid amount of change during this period which means it is also the most hazardous period because a lot can go wrongShort period of timethFrom the 8 week until birth the organism is called a fetusThree TrimestersWhen the internal organs and the structures actually connect with each other and form a coherent system Substantial development in terms of brain growth All of the neurons you ever produced is now exist Majority are made in this periodTowards the end of this period myelination This is why the fetus flips upside downCauses of Prenatal DevelopmentFour major developmental processes mechanisms of change transform a zygote into an rdthembryo the name given to the developing organism from the 3 to 8 week of prenatal development and then into a fetus the name given to the developing organism from the th9 week to birth These are important because they are as important as in later development ie adolescence and adultCell division results in the proliferation of cellsCell migration the movement of cells from their point of origin to somewhere else in the embryo like second trimester where cells are made in one location and move outwardCell differentiation transforms the embryos unspecialized stem cells into different types of cells Since all cells in the body have the identical set of genes what determines which type of cell a given stem cell is the location its further development is influenced by what is going on in its neighbouring cells and which genes in the cell are switched on or expressed
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