Fazio node model states that the more an attitude/evaluation is activated, the stronger it gets
Psychological Reactance Theory
The more you are not allowed to do something, the more you want to do it reactance
This causes the person to value the lost option more highly than before
E.g. Mother forbids the child to play in mud, this increases the attractiveness of the activity for the
We can use the psychological reactance theory to our advantage! If you really like someone, just
tell them that you no longer want them, then they would want you even more.
We want something when we cannot get them.
Dogs will salivate when they smell food, thus we can condition them to salivate as the bell rings
and the food arrives. As we do this enough times, we can actually cause them to salivate when
they hear the bell ring only without the food
1.Unconditioned stimuli (food) unconditioned response (salivating)
2.Conditioned stimuli (bell rings) unconditioned stimuli (food) unconditioned response
3.Conditioned stimuli (bell rings) conditioned response (salivate)
Evaluative conditioning refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus (usually neutral) that are due
to the fact that the stimulus is linked with another positive or negative stimulus
When something neutral is paired is associated with something good, we will think of the neutral
When something neutral is paired is associated with something bad, we will think of the neutral as
Similar to higher-order conditioning
The difference between evaluative conditioning and high-order conditioning:
1.Evaluative conditioning is used when humans are participants
2.Evaluative conditioning is when emotions and attitudes rather than behaviour are the
We can use EC in marketing to associate products with good things
Materials: Fictions brand names (Jorro toothpaste) and pleasant pictures
Procedure: Paired neutral things with pleasant pictures or neutral pictures.
Participants were asked to rate how much they like the brands?
The brands were not real so as to prevent previous attitudes from developing
Neutral vs. positive stimuli Results:
Immediately later: good condition was rated positively and neutral condition was rated
neutrally. First impression is very important
3 weeks later: delta change remains constant between the neutral and positive pairs,
however absolute liking decreases for both. Good paired was rated as neutral and neutral
paired was rated as negative
Evaluative conditioning produced a more favourable attitude immediately after a product
was paired with pleasant pictures
After 3 weeks the effects did not really persist, although the delta change remains constant
Volkswagen puppy commercial associate the car with pleasant things
Observational Evaluative Conditioning:
An individual is indirectly exposed to conditioned stimuli – unconditioned stimuli incidents by
means of observation of another individual
Baeyens: Children’s liking of drinks was influenced by seeing an actor displaying either
displeasure or a neutral expression.
Direct experience works the best, however if you see someone get someone attractive by
drinking a coke, you would want that coke too!
Children are imitators. Children watch novel actions and they follow them. If they see someone
drinking coke happily they would want to drink it too.
Bobo doll experiment
Kids see an adult attacking a bobo doll and they also imitates them
1.No control, they are all given permission to be violent
2.Confounds: it might be better to have 2 groups, one group who are allowed to do
whatever they want and another group cannot do whatever they want.
3.The doll is supposed to be hit!
4.The kids are shown a video without any explanation and they can do whatever they
want. They are actually given permission twice to hit the doll.
Watching aggressive TV does not naturally increase violence.
Violent people like to watch violent movies which in turn increases their aggressiveness.
Attitudes are not only influenced by reasoning and careful processing of relevant information
Attitudes are also influenced unconsciously
Unconscious influences on attitudes may explain why advertising is effective even if most people
believe that they are not influenced by it
Coke vs. Pepsi Mere Exposure:
Participants saw novel stimuli (Chinese characters, Turkish signs and photographs) with
Afterwards participants rated for each stimulus how much they liked it
Control group: neutral stimuli
We tend to have a positivity offset to things
The more times they are exposed to the novel stimuli, the more they would like it!
Liking increased with the frequency of presentations
The effect was consistent across three different types of stimuli
This effect is called the mere exposure effect
However participants might have caught on to the study
Subsequent studies shows that exposure even increases liking of new stimuli if exposure occurs
Results: the effects of subliminal exposure effects are sometimes larger than when people can
see the stimuli
Expose a stimuli without people realising it subliminal
Participants probably make attributions purely to liking if they are unaware that they’ve seen the
They have this gut reaction, however they do not know it as they did not see it with their known
eyes as far as they know. The brain can pick up the subliminal flashes without the person being
Complex stimuli have a stronger effect than simple stimuli since it is harder to process and
decide why you like it if it is complex
Brief stimulus exposure (1s) has a stronger effect than longer stimulus exposure (5s)
The sleeper effect: Where people are more persuaded by a message over time.
Variety among stimuli produces a stronger effect than homogeneity among the stimuli
Whenever we are exposed to a new stimulus, a lot of information hits us all at once
Some of the information is evaluated positively and some of it negatively
This competition between positive and negative information is uncomfortable, thus we view the
stimuli negatively at first.
Then we get comfortable and we like them
A problem with this explanation is that it conflicts with the positivity offset
Our opinions usually follow a path from neutral to positive not negative to neutral
WRONG! Two-step Theory: (David Berlyne)
Initially perceiving a stimulus is a difficult task.
However after repeated exposure a person develops a sense of mastery.
This mastery creates a positive feeling and this
After many repeated exposures a person has already achieved mastery
They would become bored with the stimulus
Favourability eventually increases less and less with every additional exposer
There is a plateauing as the number of exposure increases, just like in Zajonc’s study
Compared to simpler stimuli, the inflection points of complex stimuli will take longer to appear
for the onset of boredom.
Thus people will get bored less easily with complex stimuli and bored more easily with simple
Similar to the two-step theory
With repeated exposure, easier to perceive the stimulus
The ease of perceptual stimuli is processed
When people are aware that they are being exposed to certain stimuli, they attribute their
perceptual fluency to the repeated exposure
However when stimuli are presented subliminally, people cannot attribute their fluency to
repeated exposure so they attribute it to positive properties of the stimuli
Fluency is misattributed
This theory explains the larger mere exposure effect found in studies using subliminal stimuli
Manipulating Attribution (Bornstein):
Photos of people were presented subliminally to participants
Participants in one group were told that they had been shown some of the photos subliminally
The participants in the second group were told that they had never seen the photos before
Results: the second group ended up with a much larger mere exposure effect(we like it just
because we had seen it before) than the first group
Conclusion: we like it because we cannot explain this gut feeling, thus we attribute to liking it not
because we saw it before but because we like it.
The participants in the first group did not misattribute their perceptual fluency
They were able to identify why they could perceive certain photos more easily than others
On the other hand, the second group tended to misattribute their perceptual fluency to
Does exposure always increase liking:
Some studies suggest that exposure effects depend on the prior effects on the prior valence of
the attitude object.
If the object is neutral (positivity offset) or positive, exposure increases liking.
If the object is negative, exposure increases dislike Subliminal Priming and Persuasion:
Strahan et al
To test whether subliminal priming of thirsty participants can influence the processing of an
advertisement for a beverage
Participants were exposed 26 trials of subliminal priming.
Some participants were exposed to thirst related an others saw neutral primes
After priming participants were shown ads for 2 drinks: Super-Quencher and PowerPro (muscles)
Overall evaluation of the 3 drinks