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Lecture 4

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William Huggon

Lecture 4:  Fazio node model states that the more an attitude/evaluation is activated, the stronger it gets Psychological Reactance Theory  Brehm  The more you are not allowed to do something, the more you want to do it reactance  This causes the person to value the lost option more highly than before  E.g. Mother forbids the child to play in mud, this increases the attractiveness of the activity for the child  We can use the psychological reactance theory to our advantage! If you really like someone, just tell them that you no longer want them, then they would want you even more.   We want something when we cannot get them. Evaluative Conditioning:  Pavlov’s Dog  Dogs will salivate when they smell food, thus we can condition them to salivate as the bell rings and the food arrives. As we do this enough times, we can actually cause them to salivate when they hear the bell ring only without the food 1.Unconditioned stimuli (food)  unconditioned response (salivating) 2.Conditioned stimuli (bell rings)  unconditioned stimuli (food)  unconditioned response (salivating) 3.Conditioned stimuli (bell rings) conditioned response (salivate)  Evaluative conditioning refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus (usually neutral) that are due to the fact that the stimulus is linked with another positive or negative stimulus  When something neutral is paired is associated with something good, we will think of the neutral as good  When something neutral is paired is associated with something bad, we will think of the neutral as bad  Similar to higher-order conditioning  The difference between evaluative conditioning and high-order conditioning: 1.Evaluative conditioning is used when humans are participants 2.Evaluative conditioning is when emotions and attitudes rather than behaviour are the dependent variable  We can use EC in marketing to associate products with good things  Grossman:  Materials: Fictions brand names (Jorro toothpaste) and pleasant pictures  Procedure: Paired neutral things with pleasant pictures or neutral pictures.  Participants were asked to rate how much they like the brands?  The brands were not real so as to prevent previous attitudes from developing  Neutral vs. positive stimuli  Results:  Immediately later: good condition was rated positively and neutral condition was rated neutrally. First impression is very important  3 weeks later: delta change remains constant between the neutral and positive pairs, however absolute liking decreases for both. Good paired was rated as neutral and neutral paired was rated as negative  Conclusion:  Evaluative conditioning produced a more favourable attitude immediately after a product was paired with pleasant pictures  After 3 weeks the effects did not really persist, although the delta change remains constant  Volkswagen puppy commercial  associate the car with pleasant things  Observational Evaluative Conditioning:  An individual is indirectly exposed to conditioned stimuli – unconditioned stimuli incidents by means of observation of another individual  Baeyens: Children’s liking of drinks was influenced by seeing an actor displaying either displeasure or a neutral expression.  Direct experience works the best, however if you see someone get someone attractive by drinking a coke, you would want that coke too!  Children are imitators. Children watch novel actions and they follow them. If they see someone drinking coke happily they would want to drink it too.  Ferguson:  Bobo doll experiment  Kids see an adult attacking a bobo doll and they also imitates them  Problems: 1.No control, they are all given permission to be violent 2.Confounds: it might be better to have 2 groups, one group who are allowed to do whatever they want and another group cannot do whatever they want. 3.The doll is supposed to be hit! 4.The kids are shown a video without any explanation and they can do whatever they want. They are actually given permission twice to hit the doll.  Watching aggressive TV does not naturally increase violence.  Violent people like to watch violent movies which in turn increases their aggressiveness.  Conclusion:  Attitudes are not only influenced by reasoning and careful processing of relevant information  Attitudes are also influenced unconsciously  Unconscious influences on attitudes may explain why advertising is effective even if most people believe that they are not influenced by it  Coke vs. Pepsi Mere Exposure:  Zajonc:  Participants saw novel stimuli (Chinese characters, Turkish signs and photographs) with difference frequencies  Afterwards participants rated for each stimulus how much they liked it  Control group: neutral stimuli  We tend to have a positivity offset to things  The more times they are exposed to the novel stimuli, the more they would like it!  Conclusion:  Liking increased with the frequency of presentations  The effect was consistent across three different types of stimuli  This effect is called the mere exposure effect  Subliminal Exposure:  However participants might have caught on to the study  Subsequent studies shows that exposure even increases liking of new stimuli if exposure occurs without awareness  Results: the effects of subliminal exposure effects are sometimes larger than when people can see the stimuli  Expose a stimuli without people realising it  subliminal  Participants probably make attributions purely to liking if they are unaware that they’ve seen the face/object before.  They have this gut reaction, however they do not know it as they did not see it with their known eyes as far as they know. The brain can pick up the subliminal flashes without the person being aware  Complex stimuli have a stronger effect than simple stimuli since it is harder to process and decide why you like it if it is complex  Brief stimulus exposure (1s) has a stronger effect than longer stimulus exposure (5s)  The sleeper effect: Where people are more persuaded by a message over time.  Variety among stimuli produces a stronger effect than homogeneity among the stimuli  Response Competition:  Whenever we are exposed to a new stimulus, a lot of information hits us all at once  Some of the information is evaluated positively and some of it negatively  This competition between positive and negative information is uncomfortable, thus we view the stimuli negatively at first.  Then we get comfortable and we like them  A problem with this explanation is that it conflicts with the positivity offset  Our opinions usually follow a path from neutral to positive not negative to neutral  WRONG!  Two-step Theory: (David Berlyne)  Positive Habituation:  Initially perceiving a stimulus is a difficult task.  However after repeated exposure a person develops a sense of mastery.  This mastery creates a positive feeling and this  Boredom:  After many repeated exposures a person has already achieved mastery  They would become bored with the stimulus  Favourability eventually increases less and less with every additional exposer  There is a plateauing as the number of exposure increases, just like in Zajonc’s study  Compared to simpler stimuli, the inflection points of complex stimuli will take longer to appear for the onset of boredom.  Thus people will get bored less easily with complex stimuli and bored more easily with simple stimuli  Perceptual Fluency:  Similar to the two-step theory  With repeated exposure, easier to perceive the stimulus  The ease of perceptual stimuli is processed  When people are aware that they are being exposed to certain stimuli, they attribute their perceptual fluency to the repeated exposure  However when stimuli are presented subliminally, people cannot attribute their fluency to repeated exposure so they attribute it to positive properties of the stimuli  Fluency is misattributed  This theory explains the larger mere exposure effect found in studies using subliminal stimuli  Manipulating Attribution (Bornstein):  Photos of people were presented subliminally to participants  Participants in one group were told that they had been shown some of the photos subliminally  The participants in the second group were told that they had never seen the photos before  Results: the second group ended up with a much larger mere exposure effect(we like it just because we had seen it before) than the first group  Conclusion: we like it because we cannot explain this gut feeling, thus we attribute to liking it not because we saw it before but because we like it.  The participants in the first group did not misattribute their perceptual fluency  They were able to identify why they could perceive certain photos more easily than others  On the other hand, the second group tended to misattribute their perceptual fluency to likeability  Does exposure always increase liking:  Some studies suggest that exposure effects depend on the prior effects on the prior valence of the attitude object.  If the object is neutral (positivity offset) or positive, exposure increases liking.  If the object is negative, exposure increases dislike  Subliminal Priming and Persuasion:  Strahan et al  To test whether subliminal priming of thirsty participants can influence the processing of an advertisement for a beverage  35 students  Participants were exposed 26 trials of subliminal priming.  Some participants were exposed to thirst related an others saw neutral primes  After priming participants were shown ads for 2 drinks: Super-Quencher and PowerPro (muscles)  Dependent variables:  Overall evaluation of the 3 drinks
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