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Lecture 3(1). PSY320H1FSeptember25th2012.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY320H1F: September 25 , 2012 Chapter 5 Incentives to Change - Yale Model of Persuasion (Hovland et al.):  Messages could change a person’s attitude by presenting an incentive for attitude change  The source of the persuasive communication (who)  Participants evaluated articles from sources who are believable and trustworthy more favourably than articles from low credibility sources  Its content (what)  A message advocating frequent tooth brushing is more effective if it elicit moderate fear about the effects of failure to brush than if it glorifies sever effects  The audience (to whom) Processing Stages - Yale Model of Persuasion (Hovland et al.): 1. Pay attention 2. Comprehension 3. Acceptance (incentives influence attitudes at this stage) - McGuire (1968): 1. Presentation 2. Attention 3. Comprehension 4. Yielding (changes the person’s attitude) 5. Retention (remember their new attitude at a later time) 6. Behaviour (new attitude influence behaviour)  A variable can have different effects on different stages during message processing  Ex. High self-esteem  more likely to attend and comprehend, but less likely to yield ∴ self-esteem should produce curvilinear effects on persuasion  Criticism: does not explain how message acceptance would actually emerge - Cognition-in-Persuasion Model (Albarracin, 2002): 1. Interpretation of the persuasive message and any other information available at the time (Ex. source characteristics) 2. Recall relevant prior knowledge 3. Identify, select, and use some of the information as the basis to form their final attitude and subsequent behaviour  Suggests that decreases and motivation and ability affect the chances of identifying potential information and then selecting information on the basis of its relevance  curvilinear predictions  Unlike earlier models, it notes that message processing can sometimes bypass earlier stages Cognitive Responses - Greenwald (1968):  Persuasion must be understood by considering people’s cognitive responses following PSY320H1F: September 25 , 2012 a persuasive message  Cognitive responses are a function of the beliefs that people already have, the communication itself, and other factors outside of the message  Attitude change should be more likely among people who generate positive cognitive responses - Acceptance-Yielding-Impact Model (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1981):  Beliefs are the important basis of attitudes  Messages should cause an attitude change when they change the beliefs underlying the person’s attitudes, their evaluations of these beliefs, or both  Not all beliefs are important in determining attitudes; the beliefs that count are those that are modally salient or primary (the ones that most likely come to mind)  Expectancy X Value perspective: belief change can occur by altering either the expectancies associated with the beliefs or the values associated with them  BUT: hard to change the evaluative components, may be easier to add/form beliefs  Yielding: more acceptance of the message position than existed before  Impact: a message’s total effect on a person includes effects on beliefs not targeted in the message Different Processes: To Think or Not to Think Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM; Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) & Heuristic-Systematic Model (HSM; Chaiken et al., 1989): the role of cognitive responses to a message varies across people and situations Elaboration Likelihood Model Heuristic-Systematic Model - People are motivated to hold correct attitudes - People may desire a correct attitude, a value-expressive - The amount and nature of issue-relevant attitude, or an attitude that helps their social image elaboration can vary - Heuristic (retrieval and application of judgmental rules) - Variables can affect attitudes by serving as vs. systematic (analytic and thorough examination) arguments, cues, or factors that affect the nature - Least effort and sufficiency principles and amount of elaboration - Ability hypothesis: heuristic processing requires less - The motivation to process a message objectively cognitive effort elicits argument scrutiny - Additivity hypothesis: heuristic and systematic can - The motivation and ability to process arguments co-occur and exert independent effects cause increased use of arguments and lower use - Bias hypothesis: heuristic cues may influence attention, of cues examination, and interpretation of information within - Biased processing of a message leads to biased systematic processing issue-relevant thoughts - Attenuation hypothesis: systematic processing will reduce - Elaborate processing of a message causes new, the use of heuristic processing when their conclusions strong attitudes contradicts - Enhancement hypothesis: inability to perform systematic processing + high desired level of confidence in their attitudinal goal  use more heuristic processing - Motivation and ability determine the way people process information  High motivation and ability: strong arguments influence attitudes more powerfully PSY320H1F: September 25 , 2012  Low motivation and ability: strongly effected by simple cues within the message - Petty, Cacioppo, & Goldman (1981): implementation of a new comprehension exam  3 manipulated variables:  Personal relevance: next year (high relevance) vs. ten years later (low relevance)  Credibility of the source: Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (high expertise) vs. a class at a local high school (inexpert source)  Quality of the arguments: strong vs. weak  Prediction: according t
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